Researching Psychiatric Drugs

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Anatomy of an Epidemic

Robert Whitaker’s

Speaking Schedule
Answering Critics


Source Documents

Anatomy of an Epidemic reviews the scientific literature to investigate the long-term effects of psychiatric medications. The documents here provide access to the abstracts (or complete articles) referred to in the book.

Polypharmacy/bipolar disorder
Psychotropics/pediatric disorders

Video Presentations

Copenhagen, Denmark. May 14, 2014.
Part I: Roots of the Epidemic
Part II: Long-term Effects of Psych Drugs
Part III: Psych Drugs and Children
Part IC: Q & A with Peter Gotzsche

Other talks


Antipsychotics In Adults
Anatomy of a Global Epidemic
Antipsychotics in Open Dialogue Therapy

Medications for Affective Disorders in Adults
Medicating Affective Disorders
SSRIs in Society: What Are Their Long-term Effects?

Medications for Pediatric Disorders
Medicating Children: Comprehensive
Medicating ADHD

In the News

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The Science of Psychiatric Drugs


1. The Case Against Antipsychotics: A Review of Their Long-term Effects

This paper, written by Robert Whitaker, provides an in-depth review of research into the long-term effects of antipsychotics as a treatment for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. It makes the case that these medications, on the whole, worsen the chronicity of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, and impair functional outcomes. This paper updates the “case made against antipsychotics” in Anatomy of an Epidemic (with a second edition published in 2015.)

2. A Guide to Minimal Use of Neuroleptics: Why and How

Authors: V. Aderhold, Institute for Social Psychiatry at the University of Greifswald, Germany;  P. Stastny, Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York

This guide provides a comprehensive review of antipsychotics, and an evidence-based rationale for treating first-episode patients without immediate use of antipsychotics; for prescribing antipsychotics at low doses when they are needed; and for supporting patients who want to taper from antipsychotic medication.


1. Antidepressants and Pregnancy: Risks to the Fetus and the Long-term Health of the Child

A comprehensive review of the scientific literature on the use of antidepressants in pregnancy, and its many risks to normal fetal development and the developing child.

Continuing Education Courses

Mad in America Continuing Education, a project that operates within the non-profit Foundation for Excellence in Mental Health Care, provides online courses for CEU and CME credits. These courses, which are taught by leading researchers and clinicians, provide an evidence-based rationale for rethinking the use of psychiatric medications.

Courses on schizophrenia and psychotic disorders:

How Vermont Discovered the Possibility of Recovery
Instructor : Courtenay Harding, Ph.D.

Psychiatric Medications and Long-term Outcomes for Schizophrenia
Instructor: Martin Harrow, Ph.D.

Prescribing Antipsychotics in First-Episode Psychosis: Is Less More?
Lex Wunderink, M.D., Ph.d.

Antipsychotics: Short and Long Term Effects
Instructor: Sandra Steingard, M.D.

The Voices in My Head
Instructor: Eleanor Longden, Ph.D.

Psychosis Past and Present: A History of Psychosis, and Corruption in Modern Psychiatry
Instructor: David Healy, M.D.

Courses on antidepressants 

The Emperor’s New Drugs: Antidepressants and the Placebo Effect
Instructor: Irving Kirsch, Ph.D.

Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy: The risks and possible harm to normal fetal development and the newborn child.
Adam Urato, M.D.

Courses on corruption and bias in the research literatures

Unraveling the Bundles of Research Bias: Is What You Read the Truth, the Whole Truth, and Nothing But the Truth?
Instructor: Erick Turner, M.D.

Psychosis Past and Present: A History of Psychosis, and Corruption in Modern Psychiatry
Instructor: David Healy, M.D.

Courses on peer services and recovery

The Voices in My Head
Instructor: Eleanor Longden, Ph.D.

Can Clinical Care Be Recovery-Oriented?
Instructor: Larry Davidson, Ph.D.

Researching Adverse Effects

Rxisk maintains a searchable database of adverse effects of prescription drugs that have been reported to the FDA in the United States, Health Canada, and to RxISK.  You can search that database here.


Withdrawal from Psychiatric Drugs

This section of our website is designed to provide information and resources that better support a decision by people who may want to taper or withdraw from psychiatric drugs. It provides guides to articles, books, videos, and patient stories.


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