The description in this of different labels such as depression or PTSD don’t seem to match DSM description or my understanding. For example, PTSD is far more complex & powerful than “avoidance”. Research shows a theory that the amygdala encodes those memories differently. Later when something triggers the PTSD response, the person becomes overwhelm with emotion– their limbic system giving a high arousal response *as if the event was happening right now*. It actually takes for the person to identify the trigger(s) and only then is the choice to avoid made. Avoidance is a coping mechanism; it isn’t the real problem. I’m not aware of cognitive therapy that is showing peer reviewed & significant results for the root cause. You cannot reason your way to not having that hyperarousal response. When it happens, all the positive self talk or “choosing” to dismiss it doesn’t doesn’t anything. The thinking part of the mind becomes secondary. Do you really believe a positive outlook & confidence in coping skills can somehow undo a profoundly negative-emotion encoded memory? Same goes for depression. It’s far worse than negative self image & giving in to discouraging thoughts. In some people, it’s an inability to string together complex thoughts– a brain fog — that makes even simple tasks like taking a shower seem too hard to deal with. Depression can take away a person’s ability to control the focus of their attention, to the point where normal negative physical sensations (background pain) become overwhelming. Some people may feel so unable to think and move, expecting them to show up to therapy regularly is unreasonable. It’s an insult to their intelligence to tell a chronic sufferer of major depression that they’re still depressed because they don’t believe the right things. It comes across as sounding like the layperson advice to a depressed friend: “Your life isn’t that bad. You can get over it. Stop believing you can’t. Get over it.” One thing you may with me about is the belief in therapy that stressors make symptoms far worse. Things that can really add to a person’s burden: shaming them, telling them they’re not trying hard enough to believe they’ll get over their issue, in a way blaming them for their own failure to get better. Invalidating their experiences & self knowledge. It almost borders on “gas lighting”: telling someone you know better than they do who they are & what they want to believe. In my opinion these things are more harmful than constructive.