This review provides a summary of non-pharmacological treatments for children and youth diagnosed with ADHD and related behavioral problems, and the scientific evidence regarding their effectiveness.

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  • Top interventions (including environmental modification, intensive behavioral camps, parent training and collaborative problem solving).
  • Add-on interventions (psychoeducation and cognitive behavioral therapy).
  • Specific add-ons (including social skills training, time management gaming and organizational skills training)
  • Interventions with less specific evidence (including positive behavioral intervention, meditation, family therapy, exercise, dietary intervention, micronutrients, and the Nurtured Heart Approach).
  • Interventions with minimal or no evidence (including computerized cognitive training, vitamin D, acetyl-l-carnitine, pycnogenol, homeopathy, acupuncture, melatonin, St. John’s wort, iron/zinc/magnesium).

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