Although I agree inadequately trained workers in any field generally lead to poor outcomes, I’m not in agreement that the issue here is lack of training or exposure to childhood trauma dynamics. Instead, I think the issue goes back to the “inadequate” therapist asserting the therapist’s values rather than exploring the client’s values, desires, and needs. Also, it seems as though the ineffective therapist neglected to focus on the client’s fear-based decision making as it related to the decision to cut off the parents or not. The more effective therapist would have tried to help the client understand that a helpful avenue of exploration would be to understand the extent to which the reported abuse shaped the client’s anxiety about making a decision making, especially as it relates to decisions about the client putting themselves first (i.e., protecting themselves from further abuse/negativity). As we work with humans, there are an infinite amount of scenarios and abuse. A therapist cannot know them all or have experience with all of them. Therefore, in my opinion, we should be falling back on how helping a client understand how a situation developed, how it’s maintained, and how to work towards improving the situation within the constraints of the client’s values, safety, and reasonable consequences of consideration.