Friday, March 22, 2019

Comments by Nic

Showing 4 of 4 comments.

  • Great example, Rachel777. Pernicious anemia is another example of a biological *cause* for a mental *disorder*. Just because the problem started in the gut, however, doesn’t mean that downstream it isn’t causing a mental illness (depression in this case). Long-term B12 deficiency leads to serious neurological degeneration via demyelination, which is certainly a brain disease. Pernicious anemia has many causes, yet it frequently results in clinical depression. Kate, Natasha et al. “Does B12 deficiency lead to lack of treatment response to conventional antidepressants?” Psychiatry (Edgmont (Pa. : Township)) vol. 7,11 (2010): 42-4. and Syed, Ehsan Ullah et al. “Vitamin B12 supplementation in treating major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial” open neurology journal vol. 7 44-8. 15 Nov. 2013, doi:10.2174/1874205X01307010044

  • Steve McCrea, Where do I start? The biological causes of mental disorders are LEGION and OBVIOUS to trained clinicians. Think Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (look it up) as one simple example.
    Bocchetta, Alberto et al. “Affective psychosis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and brain perfusion abnormalities: case report” Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health : CP & EMH vol. 3 31. 20 Dec. 2007, doi:10.1186/1745-0179-3-31
    For more pieces of the mountain of facts about biological causes of mental disorders, see:
    Infectious Behavior by Paul H Patterson (shows the infectious causes of schizophrenia and autism)
    A Promise of Hope by Autumn Stringham (more of a personal case history of nutritional causes of bipolar disorder) for an intro to nutritional causes.
    The movie Brain on Fire (for an intro to autoimmune causes of mental health disorders).
    The mental effects of hypoglycemia. Books such as Nutrition and Your Mind by George Watson discuss this.
    Just a few of the many papers on Iron and ADHD:
    Chen, Mu-Hong et al. “Association between psychiatric disorders and iron deficiency anemia among children and adolescents: a nationwide population-based study” BMC psychiatry vol. 13 161. 4 Jun. 2013
    Konofal, Eric and Samuele Cortese. “Lead and neuroprotection by iron in ADHD” Environmental health perspectives vol. 115,8 (2007): A398-9; author reply A399.
    Effectiveness of Iron Supplementation in a Young Child With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    A few more papers to read about biological causes and associations with mental disorders:
    Niederhofer, Helmut. “Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and celiac disease: a brief report” primary care companion for CNS disorders vol. 13,3 (2011): PCC.10br01104.
    Li Y et al. Dietary patterns and depression risk: A meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2017 Jul;253:373-382.
    Howard AL et al. ADHD is associated with a “Western” dietary pattern in adolescents. J Attention Disorders 2011;15(5):403-411.
    Lopresti AL, Jacka FN. Diet and bipolar disorder. J Altern Complement Med. 2015 Dec;;21(12):733-739.
    Peet M. Nutrition and schizophrenia: an epidemiological and clinical perspective. Nutr Health. 2003;17(3):211-219.
    Logan AC, Jacka FN. Nutritional psychiatry research: an emerging discipline and its intersection with global urbanization, environmental challenges and the evolutionary mismatch. J Physiol Anthropol. 2014;33:22.
    Jacka F et al. A randomised controlled trial of dietary improvement for adults with major depression (the ‘SMILES’ trial). BMC Medicine1. 2017;5:23.
    Parletta N et al. A Mediterranean-style dietary intervention supplemented with fish oil improves diet quality and mental health in people with depression: a randomized controlled trial (HELFIMED). Nutr Neuro 2017 Dec;7:1-14.
    Serafini G et al. The role of inflammatory cytokines in suicidal behavior: a systematic review. Eur Neuropsychopharmacology 2013;23(12):1672-1686.
    Goldstein BI et al. Inflammation and the phenomenology, pathophysiology, comorbidity, and treatment of bipolar disorder: a systematic review. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70:1078-1090.
    Najjar S et al. Neuroinflammation and psychiatric illness. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2013;10:43.
    Politi P et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trials of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in psychiatric disorders: a review of the current literature. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2013 Sep;10(3):245-253.
    Benton D. Carbohydrate ingestion, blood glucose and mood. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2002;26:293-308.;
    Daly ME et al. Acute effects on insulin sensitivity and diurnal metabolic profiles of a high-sucrose compared with a high-starch diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998; 67:1186-96.
    Jones TW. Enhanced adrenomedullary response and increased susceptibility to neuroglycopenia: mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of sugar ingestion in healthy children. J Pediatr. 1995;126(2):171-7.
    Pearson S et al. Depression and insulin resistance: cross-sectional associations in young adults. Diabetes Care 2010;33:1128–1133.
    Hajek T et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a potentially modifiable risk factor for neurochemical brain changes in bipolar disorders. Biological Psychiatry. 2015;77:295–303.
    Kim B, Feldman EL. Insulin resistance as a key link for the increased risk of cognitive impairment in the metabolic syndrome. Exp Mol Med. 2015;47(3):e149
    Calkin CV et al. Insulin resistance in bipolar disorder: relevance to routine clinical care. Bipolar Disorders. 2015;17:683-688.
    de la Monte SM, Wands JR. Alzheimer’s disease is type 3 diabetes—evidence reviewed. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. 2008;2(6):1101-1113.
    Colle R et al. PPAR-γ agonists for the treatment of major depression: a review. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2017 Mar;50(2):49-55.
    Iranpour N et al. The effects of pioglitazone adjuvant therapy on negative symptoms of patients with chronic schizophrenia: a double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2016 Mar;31;(2):103-12.
    Villagomez A, Ramtekkar U. Iron, magnesium, vitamin d, and zinc deficiencies in children presenting with symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Children. 2014;1:261-279.
    WHO. Is it true that lack of iodine really causes brain damage? WHO website. Updated May 2013
    Mazahery H et al. Relationship between Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and Autism Spectrum Disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control and randomised controlled trials. Nutrients. 2017 Feb;9(2).
    Sathe N et al. Nutritional and dietary interventions for autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2017 Jun;139(6).
    Erhart M et al. Examining the relationship between ADHD and overweight in children and adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2012; 21:39–49.
    Lange, KW et al. The role of nutritional supplements in the treatment of ADHD: what the evidence says. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2017;19: 8.
    Pelsser LM et al. Diet and ADHD; reviewing the evidence: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2017 Jan 25;12(1):e0169277.
    Wassef A, Nguyen QD, St-André M. Anaemia and depletion of iron stores as risk factors for postpartum depression: a literature review. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2018 Jan 24:1-10. PubMed PMID: 29363366.
    Smith KA, Fairburn CG, Cowen PJ. Relapse of depression after rapid depletion of tryptophan. Lancet. 1997;349(9056):915–919.

    These are just the tip of the iceberg. I’m excited for you to discover them, though!
    Talk therapy can be great, but no amount of talk therapy is going to increase someone’s iron levels unless it’s focused on telling them how to get more iron (for example). We need a multi-disciplinary approach. The paradigm I see here in Mad in America is pitting talk therapy against psychiatric drugs, which is a valid debate. However, we do need to keep in mind there are more than just those two factors or approaches to addressing the multitude of factors affecting mental health.
    But don’t get me wrong. I love Mad in America and am aligned with its mission. The issue you’re rightly fighting is our current system of seeking and prescribing a one size fits all drug to fix a mental health problem that may have any number of causes that are totally irrelevant to the drug’s effects. That’s why psychiatric drugs don’t usually work. It’s not that mental illness doesn’t have any biological basis. To say there’s no biological cause for psychiatric conditions is patently false. I get annoyed with Mad in America when writers conflate psychiatric drugs with all biological contributors to mental illness. That’s why I commented here.

  • This article is reductionistic and polarized. Mental health is affected by physical health. This article is basically insinuating the brain has nothing to do with the mind. Reading the cited sources, it sounds like the original intention of the articles he cites is to integrate psychology, biology, and environment together into a holistic system… not to completely cut out the biological component as this article tries to do. A quote from the abstract of the first article cited: “instead of being reducible to a biological basis, mental disorders feature biological and psychological factors that are deeply intertwined in feedback loops. This suggests that neither psychological nor biological levels can claim causal or explanatory priority, and that a holistic research strategy is necessary for progress in the study of mental disorders.” That statement I can agree with. However, it’s completely untrue to say that “mental health concerns are not brain disorders.” As a biochemist, I can point to literally thousands of articles showing biological CAUSATION of mental disorders.