Fragility can come when a young child does not learn to automatically and naturally down-regulate. When a cell-phone alerts us to an incoming call, we answer it and the ringing stops so we can have a conversation. What I find in my fear of flying clients (www.fearofflying.com) is that when their amygdala alerts them via the release of stress hormones, their parasympathetic nervous system does not kick in and override the effects of the stress hormones. Thus, they stay in a state of alert/alarm until the stress hormones burn off. And if stress hormone release continues, as stress hornones are burned off, they are replaced with more. Fortunately, I stumbled on a way to give my fear of flying clients a way to down-regulate automatically, and as a result, they don’t panic. But the point is, without this automatic down-regulation, a person looks – and in some ways is – emotionally fragile. Continued hyperarousal stands in the way of good cognition, no matter how much CBT they are treated with and no matter how much medication they receive.