This Q? jumped out at me from the abstract, and I hope either Dr. Hickey, or Robert W., or *somebody*, will have a good response…. The abstract talks about, in the last 3 lines, “require….the development of biomarkers that will enable a precision medicine approach to individualized treatment”…. Similar language also appears in the “Conclusion”…. First, exactly *WHAT*, – in strict medical terms, *ARE* these elusive “biomarkers”? If “biomarkers” need to be “developed”, does that mean “invented”?…. Seems to me, either “biomarkers” DO exist, or else they DO NOT….Which is it? Can’t be both! And, given that they do or do not exist, how can they be “developed”? Will we see something like this, in future: “Current biomarker development lacks the precision to make a more definitive diagnosis”, or some such nonsense? Has anybody ever explained exactly how these alleged “biomarkers” are “developed”?…. Can they be grown in a test tube or petri dish? Can “biomarkers” be genetically engineered”? Are “biomarkers” GMO’s? I sure hope somebody can help me with these questions!….