It was precisely due to the inefficacy and excesses of psychotherapy in the 1950s, ’60s, and ’70s that led to the rise of psychopharmacology as the primary means of treating “mental illness”. From its very beginnings, psychotherapy cost too much, took too long, and was led by narcissistic gurus. Psychotherapists have yet to construct a unified and stable theory of what “therapy” actually is and how it actually works. Psychotherapists since Freud mistakenly claim that talking about the past and “mourning” it would cure symptoms of “mental illness”. This is not true in many cases. Nor is long-term psychotherapy affordable to most people. Dr. Berezin is guilty of the same biological pseudoscience that he accuses psychiatrists of when he speaks of “repairing” the “damage”. Our brains are learning machines, not brickwork. The process of change is NOT called “mourning”. It is called learning. We learn by having good teachers and good experiences. Sometimes these teachers are called “psychotherapists”. And even with a good teacher, memories are never “healed”–memories are integrated. Much of a “skilled” psychotherapist’s approach and success should actually be credited to building a long-term, trusting human relationship.