Contemporary psychiatry is not a wrong turn, it follows the road laid out by Benjamin Rush, M.D. (1749-1813), the “father of modern psychiatry”. Rush thought “mental illness” was biological, a circulatory problem leading to an inflammation of the brain, and treated it with bloodletting, purging, alternating warm and cold baths, confinement to a “tranquilizing chair”, and a a gyrator board upon which patients were strapped and spun around — he invented the latter two therapies. For psychiatry, it only took short hops from the trepanation of the Middle Ages to the phrenology of the 19th century (the foundation of neuropsychiatry) to prefrontal leucotomy and then lobotomy (1930s) or, after the electric chair was invented in the late 1880s, from Rush’s “tranquilizing chair” or gyrator to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (1930s). After an early antibiotic, isoniazid, was observed to cause mood elevation in 1951, it was easy for psychiatry to envision invasive treatment of the brain using drugs rather than piercing instruments. It was the psychoanalytic era that was a departure for psychiatry. Otherwise, psychiatry has been bouncing biological treatments off people for centuries based on bizarre theories with no scientific evidence, and without any effort to understand what experiences might be causing their emotional distress.