Much of U.S. Healthcare Is Broken: How to Fix It (References)

This page contains the full list of citations for the book Much of U.S. Healthcare Is Broken: How to Fix It by Les Ruthven, which is being serialized on Mad in America. The chapters are available to read here, with a new chapter becoming available every Monday.


Chapter 1

Ref. #1 Diederich Healthcare.  “2015 Medical Malpractice Awards”.  March 9, 2015.

Chapter 2

Ref. #1 Ruthven, Les.  “Antidepressants:  Science, Magic or Marketing?  2005, PMHM Press, pp. 311.

Ref. #2 Dobson, “A Meta-analysis of the Efficacy of Cognitive Therapy for depression”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychotherapy, 57:  1979, 850-863.

Ref. #3 Steinbrueck, S.M. et al.  “A Meta-analysis of psychotherapy and drug treatment in the treatment of unipolar depression with adults”.  J. Consul. & Clin. Psychology, 51:  1983, 856-863.

Ref. #4 Joanna Moncrief.  “A comparison of antidepressant trials using active and inert placebos”. Inter. J. of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 2003.

Ref. #5 M.M. Gassaway et al.  “The Atypical antidepressant and neuroprotective agent tianeptine is u-opioid receptor agonist.”  Translational Psychiatry 4, 2014.

Ref. #6 Kirsch, I. and Saperstein, G. “Listening to Prozac but hearing Placebo:  a Meta-analysis of antidepressant medication.  Prevention and Treatment, Vol. 1, article 0002a, posted June 26, 1998.

Ref. #6a Kirsch, I. “The Emperor’s New Drugs:  Exploding the Antidepressant Myth” Basic Books, 2010, pp.96-97.

Ref. #7 Clayton, A.H.  “Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction Among Newer Antidepressants”.  J. of Clinical Psychiatry, 63:  357-366.  Abstract, 2002.

Ref. #7a Salerian, A.J. et al.  “Sildenafil for Psychotrophic-induced Sexual Dysfunction in 31 Women and 61 Men”.  J. of Sex and Marital Therapy, 26:  133-140, 2000.

Ref. #8a Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), NCHS data brief No. 352m Oct. 2019.

Ref. #9 Martin Keller et al.  “The Infamous 329 Study”. J. of the American Acad. of Child & Adolescent+. Psychiatry, July 2001.

Ref. #10 Le Noury et al.  “Restoring Study 329:  “Efficacy and harms of paroxetine and imipramine in the treatment of major depression in adolescents”:  BMJ, 2015; 351: h 4320.

Ref. #11 Mark Olfson et al. “Antidepressant drug therapy and suicide in severely Depressed Children and Adults:  A Case-Controlled Study” Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2006; 63(8); 865-872.

Ref. #11a Yolande Lucire and Christopher Crotty.  Antidepressant medication-induced akathesia-related homicides associated with diminishing mutations in metabolizing genes of the CYP450 family”.  Pharmagenomics Pers. Med 2011; 4: 65-81.

Ref. #11b Arif Kahn et al.  “Symptom Reduction and Suicide Risk in patients treated with Placebo and drug administration:  analysis of the FDA database”. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2000; 57 (4) 311-317.

Ref. #11c National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Data Brief No. 352, October 2019.  ????

Ref. #11d Qin, P. &Nordentoff, M.  “Suicide Risk in relation to psychiatric hospitalization”.  Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 427-432, 2006.

Ref. #11e Meehan, J.  “Suicide in mental health inpatients and within 3 months of discharge”.  The British J. of Psychiatry, 188, 129-134, 2006.

Ref. #12 Thomas S. Moore et al.  “Prescription Drugs Associated with Reports of violence toward others”.  PLOS/one.  Published online, Dec. 15, 2010.

Ref. #12a Susan P. Baker et al. “Increase in Suicide by Hanging/Suffocation in the U.S. 2000.  Am. J. Prev. Med, 2013, Feb: 44(2) L 145-149.

Ref. #13 Elysa M. Cornett et al. “Medication-induced Tardive Dyskinesia:  A Review and Update”.  Ochsner J. 2017; (2): 162-174.

Ref. #14 Giovanni A. Fava et al. “Cognitive Behavior Approaches to loss of clinical Effect During long-term antidepressant treatment:  A pilot study”.  Amer J. of Psychiatry. Dec. 2002.

Ref. #16a Benedict Cary and Robert Gebeloff, New York Times, April 7, 2018.

Ref. #16b Caroline Cassels “FDA Approves Esketamine Nasal Spray for Resistant Depression”.  Medscape Psychiatry, Mar. 05, 2019.

Ref. #17 Alan K. Davis et al.  “5-netho-N-dimethyltripta-mine (5-Meo-DMT) used in a naturalistic group setting is associated with unintended improvements in depression and anxiety”.  J. of Drug and Alcohol abuse, Vol. 45, 2017—Issue 2.

Ref. #18 Alicia Ault, Medscape Psychiatry, published online March 19, 2019.  “FDA Approves Brexanolone (Zulresso), First Drug for Postpartum Depression”.

Ref. #19 Bellew K. et al. “Paroxetine and the Rate of remission in the treatment of GAD, Research presented at 54th Annual APA meeting, New Orleans, May 2001.

Ref. #20 Edna B. Foa et al.  “Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Exposure and Ritual Prevention, Clomipramine, and their Combinations in the treatment of OCD”.  Amer Psychiatric Assoc, published online: Jan. 1, 2005.

Ref. #21 Center for Drug Evaluation and research, Federal Drug Administration.

Ref. #22 Billiote de Gage Sophia.  “Benzo use and the risk of Alzheimer’s Disease:  case controlled study”.  Brit. Med J. 2014, 348 (Published Sept 2014).

Ref. #23 Elly Vintiadis.  “Is Addiction a Disease”?  Scientific American. Nov. 8, 2017.

Ref. #24 Ramin Moitabai and Joshua Zivin.  “Effectiveness and Cost-effectiveness of Four Treatment Modalities for Substance Disorders”.  Health Serv Res. 2003:  February:  38 (11Pt1):  233-259.

Ref. #25 National Depression and Manic Association online survey of antidepressant users and the drug’s effectiveness.

Ref. #26 Nijar El-Khalili et al.  “Extended-release quetiapine fumarate as adjunctive therapy in MDD in patients with an inadequate response to ongoing ADM treatment:  a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study”. Int. J. Nuropspychopharmacology, Vol. 13, Issue 7, Aug. 2010, pp. 917-932.

Ref. #27 “FDA approval of Esketamine nasal spray treatment for resistant depression”.  Medscape psychiatry, online Feb. 13, 2019.

Ref. #28 A.J. Rush et al.  “Daily left prefrontal stimulation (VNS) for treatment resistant depression; a multi-center study”. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 276-286, 2002.

Ref. #29 “MagVita rTMS devise receives FDA approval for treatment of drug resistant depression”.  Medscape Psychiatry.  Megan Brooks, online Aug. 22, 2018

Ref. #30 Psychiatric News.  “FDA clears Deep TMS Device for Treatment of OCD”.  Published online:  30 Aug 2018.

Ref. #31 “NeuroStar” Psychiatric News.  Jim Rasack, writer.  Published online, Mar. 2, 2007.

Ref. #32 “rTMS no Better Then Sham Stimulation for Severe Depression”, a review by Medscape, published online, July 5, 2018.

Ref. #33 Lee S. Cohen et al.  “Relapse of MDD during Pregnancy in Women Who Maintain or Discontinue ADM treatment”.  JAMA, Vol. 295, No 5, Feb 1, 2006.

Ref. #1 Ruthven, Les “Antidepressants:  Science, Magic or Marketing?” PMHM Press, pages 311, 2005.

Ref. #34 Lui, Diaoquin et al. “ADM use during pregnancy and psychiatric disorders of offspring”.  Danish national register based cohort study”. Brit. Med J. Sept 2017.

Ref. #35 Anic Beard et al.  “ADM use during pregnancy and the Risk of Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Children”.  JAMA Pediatrics, 2015.

Ref. #35a FDA approves first treatment for postpartum depression.  FDA News Release, March 19, 2019.

Ref. #36 Prapha Arnnok et al.  “Selective Uptake on bioaccumulation of ADMs in Fish Brains from Effluent-impacted Niagra River”.  /Environ. Sci. Technol. 2017, 51(18) pp. 10652-10662.

Ref. #37 James Davies and John Read’s review of the “ADM Withdrawal Syndrome” in J. of Addictions Behaviors, 2018.

Ref. #38 Nancy H. Liu et al.  “Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders:  a multilevel intervention framework and priorities for clinical practice, policy and research agendas”.  World Psychiatry.  2017 Feb.  16(1): 30-40.

Ref. #39 Marla Maslej et al. “The Mortality and Myocardial Effects of ADMs are moderated by Pre-existing Cardiovascular Disease”.  Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 2017.

Ref. #40 Rush, A. J. et al.  “Sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression (Star*D):  rational and design.  Controlled Clin. Trials. 2005, Feb. 25.

Ref. #41 Ed Piggott.  “Efficacy and effectiveness of ADMs”.  Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics”, 79m, 2010.

Ref. #42 Paul Andrews et al.  “Blue Again: pertubational effects of ADMs suggest monoaminergic homeostasis in major depression”. Psychol. Rev, 620-654.

Chapter 3

Ref. #1 S. Leucht et al.  “How effective are second-generation antipsychotic drugs?  A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials” Molecular Psychiatry Vol 14, 2009, pp.429-447.

Ref. #1a Robert Whittaker.  “Anatomy of an Epidemic”. B/D/N/Y Broadway Books, N.Y., 2010.

Ref. #2 Peter R. Breggin.  “Toxic Psychiatry.  St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1991.

Ref. #3 Ho, B.C. et al. “Long term antipsychotic treatment and Brain Volumes:  a longitudinal study of First Episode Schizophrenia”.  Arch Gen Psychiatry, Feb 2011, 68(2) k 128-37.

Ref. #4 Joanna Moncrieff.  “Antipsychotics and Brain Shrinkage, Mad in America, Jun 19, 2013.

Ref. #4a Joanna Moncrieff and Leo J.  “A systematic review of the effects of antipsychotic drugs on brain volume”.  Psychol. Med, 2010 Sep. 40(9): 1409-22.

Ref. #4b Ania P. Huse.  “Lifetime antipsychotic medication and cognitive performance in schizophrenia at age 43 years in a general population birth cohort” Psychiatry Res. 2017 Jan; 247:  130-138.

Ref. #5 Nancy Andreason et al. “Progressive Brain Damage in schizophrenia”. Biol. Psychiatry, Oct 1, 2011, 70(7):  672-9.

Ref. #5a Moises Velasquex-Manoff.  He Got Schizophrenia.  He Got Cancer.  And then he got cured (of schizophrenia).  Sept. 29, 2018 the New York Times.

Ref. #6 Dorph-Peterson, J.N. “The influence of chronic exposure to antipsychotic meds.  On brain size before and after tissue fixation:  a comparison of Haloperidol and Olanzapine in macaque monkeys”.  Neuropsych. Pharmacology, Sept 2005, 30(9), 1649-61.

Ref. #6a T. A Dhir et al.  “Estimate of TD Incidence and prevalence in the U.S.”.  Presented 21st International Congress.  Tue. June 6, 2017.  Session Title:  Drug Induced movement disorders.

Ref. #7 Moises Velasquex-Manoff.  “He got Schizophrenia, He got Cancer; and then he got cured of schizophrenia.   Sept. 2018, the New York Times.

Ref. #7a Mohamed Ahmed et al. “Progressive brain atrophy and cortical thinning after commencing Clozapine Treatment”.  Neuropsychopharmacology, 2015, 40, 2409-2417.

Ref. #8 Harrow, Martin.  “Factors Involved and outcome and recovery in schizophrenic patients not on antipsychotic medications”. J. of Nervous and Ment. Diseases. 195, 2007: 406—14.

Ref. #9 World Health Organization (WHO) “Schizophrenia:  an international follow up study.l Chictrester. John Wiley &Sons: 1997.

Ref. #9a J. Sanbourne Bockoven.  “Comparison of Two Five-Year Follow-Up Studies:  1947 to 1952 and 1967 to 1972.  Am J. Psychiatry. 132: 8. August 1975.

Ref. #9b Nathanial Lehrman.  “Relapse rates in New York psychiatric hospitals in the 1940s and 1950s”.  Psychiatric Quarterly, 34 (1960), 658-681.

Ref. #10 E.R. Walker et al. “Mortality in mental disorders and global disease implications:  a systematic review and meta-analysis”. JAMA Psychiatry, 2015, Apr, 72(4) 334-41.

Ref. #11 Robert Prien.  “Relapse in Chronic Schizophrenia following abrupt Withdrawal of Tranquilizing Medication”.  Brit. J of Psychiatry, 115 (1996) 679-686.

Ref. #11a Wonderrink, L. et al “Recovery in Remitted First-Episode Psychosis: a 7 year follow-up of an Early Dose Reduction/Discontinuation or Maintenance Strategy:  Long term Follow-up of a two year Randomized Clinical Trial.  JAMA Psychiatry, Jul. 3, 2013.

Ref. #12 Loren Moser. “Satoria” Brit Med Journal, 2004 Aug. 239, (4673).

Ref. #13 Jeffrey A. Lieberman et al.  “Effectiveness of Antipsychotic Drugs in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia”.  New Eng. J of Med. 2005, 353, 1209-1223.

Ref. #14 L.L. Judd et al. “The Prevalence and disability of bipolar spectrum disorders in the U.S. population:  reanalysis of the ECA database taking into account sub-threshold cases”. J. Affective Disord. Jan. 2003, 73 (1-2): 123-311.

Ref. #14a Benedict Carey, “Bipolar disorder cases rise sharply in U.S. Children”.  New York Times.  Sept. 3, 2003.

Ref. #15 Suresh Dilgram et al. “The efficacy and tolerability of carpiprazine in acute mania associated with bipolar disorder:  a phase 2 trial”.  Bipolar Disorder, 24 July 2014.

Ref. #16 Aysigul Yildiz et al. Efficacy of Anti-manic Treatments:  Meta-analysis of Randomized, controlled Trials”.  Neuropsychopharmacology, 36, 2011, pp. 375-389.

Ref. #17 A. Kukopulus.  “Antidepressants worsen Long-Term Bipolar Outcomes.  Compreh. Psychiatry 24 (1d983): 249-58.

Ref. #18 Ghaemi, N. “Diagnosing bipolar disorder and the effect of Antidepressants”.  J. of Clin Psychiatry 61 (2000): 804-809.

Ref. #18a “Unethical Psychiatric Drug Trials Putting Children at Grave Risk”, by Mental Health Watchdog.  Published May 2, 2018.

Ref. #19 Nicholas Tarrier et al. “Randomized controlled trials of intensive cognitive therapy with chronic schizophrenia”. BMJ, 1998: 317-323.

Chapter 4

No References

Chapter 5

Ref. #1 K. Kroneke & S.D.  Mangelsdorph.  “Causes of Common Symptoms in Primary Care Medicine”, Am. J. of Medicine, 86, 1999, 262-266.

Ref. #1a “Cognitively Impairing Drugs”.  Worst Pills News, Vol. 22, No 9.

Ref. # 2 Tim A. Ahles.  “Cancer-and Cancer Treatment-associated Cognitive Change:  An Update on the state of the science”.  J. of Clin Oncology, published online.

Ref. # 3 online Wikipedia “Cognitive symptoms from steroids.

Ref. # 4 Gerald Goldstein et al.  “An Introduction to the Ruthven Impairment Assessment (RIA):  a Stability Study”.  Applied Neuropsychology, March, 2017

Ref. # 5) Johanna M. Meulepas et al. “Radiation Exposure from Pediatric CT scans and Subsequent Cancer Risk in the Netherlands.  JNCI:  J. of Nat. Cancer Inst., 2018.

Ref. #5a Consumer Reports.  “Review of the scientific literature on the dangers of CT Scans and X rays:  patients are often exposed to cancer-causing radiation for little medical reason”.  Published online:  January 27, 2015.

Ref. #6 Gretchen Lefever Watson et al.  “The extent of drug therapy for ADD/ADHD disorder among children in public schools”. J. Contemp. Psychotherapy. 2014; 44(1): 43-52.

Ref. # 7 Melissa L. Danielson et al.  “Prevalence of Parent-reported ADHD Diagnosis and Associated Treatment Among U.S. children and Adolescents, J of Clinical child and adolescent Psychology, Vol. 47, 2018.

Ref. #8 Attention Deficit Disorder Research, “ADD/ADHD data” Published online, October 11, 2018.

Ref. #9 Tiffany L. Tsai et al. “An update on Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (PCD) Advances in Anesthesia.  2010, Vol. 28, Issue 1, pp. 269-282.

Ref. #10 Mark Newman et al.  “Central nervous system injury associated with cardiac surgery”.  Lancet, Vol. 368, Issue 9536, 19-25, Aug. 2006, 694-703.

Ref. #10a Art Van Zee et al. “The Promotion of OxyContin:  Commercial Triumph, Public Health Tragedy:  The Purdue Frederick Company”, Amer. J. Public Health, 99(2), Feb. 2009.

Ref. #11 Kandra Toronori et al. “High Signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and globas pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted images:  relationship with increasing dose of a gadolinium-based contrast material”.  Radiology, 2014:  270(3): 834-841.

Ref. # 12 Dionne Lefler “Can Wichita afford for police, firefighters to carry life-saving drug:  Wichita Eagle, July 22, page 3a.

Ref. #13 Jason W. Busse et al.  “Opioids for Chronic Noncancerous Pain:  A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”.  JAMA.  2018; 320(23) L 2448-2460.

Ref. #13a “The Pain Hustlers”.  Evan Hughes, online The New York Times, May 2, 2018.

Ref. #14 The Academy of Brain injury Specialists.  Persistent and Abusive Use of Opioids; short and long term Effects on the Brain”.  By Rita Cola Carrel, Ph.D., online 1/25/2019.

Ref. #15 Jared Younger et al. “Prescription opioid analgesics rapidly change the human brain”.  Pain.  152(8): 1803-1810, Aug 2011.

Ref. # 15a E. Munaz et al.  “National and Surgical healthcare expenditures”.  Ann. Surg. 2010, Feb. 251 (2):  195-200.

Ref. #16 Gina Kolta.  The New York Times.  “Surgery for Blocked arteries is often unwarranted”. Nov 16, 2010.

Ref. #17 CBS Television News.  “Report on Medicare lumbar laminectomy patients from 2011-2012”.  Colombia Broadcasting System.

Ref. #17a Jens Ivan Brox.  “A randomized study of CBT and back surgery with chronic back pain”.  Spine, 2003 Sept. 1: 28(1dr):  1913-21.

Ref. #18 “Newsletter”.  The official J. of the anesthesia patient safety Foundation.  Vol 30, No. 3, Feb. 2016.

Ref. #19 Roger Chou et al.  “Epidural Corticosteroid Injections for Radiculopathy and Spinal Stenosis”.  Internal Medicine, 2011, No 154, pp. 181-189.

Ref. #20 Roger Chou et al. “Systematic Pharmacologic Therapies for low back pain: A Systematic Review for an American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guidelines”.  Annals of Internal Medicine, 4 April 2017.

Ref. #21 N.K. Arden et al.  “Multicenter randomized-controlled trial of EPI for sciatica:  the West study”.  Rheumatology, Vol. 44, Issue 11, 1 Nov. 2005, pp. 1399-1406.

Ref. #22 Trond T. Iverson et al.  “Effect of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy; multi-center blinded, randomized controlled trials”.  BMJ, 2011:  343 oybkusged 13 Sept. 2011.

Ref. #23 Kris E. Radcliff et al. “Epidural Steroid Injections Are Associated with Less improvement in the Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis; a subgroup analysis of SPORT”.  JAMA Internal Medicine:  2016, Jan.  176 (1) L 5-63.

Ref. # 24 G.T. Eguale et al.  “Association of off-label drug use and adverse drug events in an adult population”.  JAMA Internal Medicine:  2016, Jan; 176 (1):  55-63.

Ref. # 24a Bernadette Tansey.  Chronicle Staff Writer.  “Huge Penalty in drug fraud/Phizer settles felony case in Neurontin off-label promotion”.  Published Friday, May 14, 2004.

Ref. # 24b Stanford Medicine News report online.  14 drugs identified as most urgently needing study for off-label use”.  Nov. 24, 2008.

Ref. #25 Greff D. Jacob et al.  “CBT is superior to pharmacotherapy for insomnia:  “A randomized and controlled study trial and direct comparison”.  Arch Inter. Med.  2004:  164; 1888-1896.

Ref. #26 David Morawetz.  “Sleep Better Without Drugs:  a Four to Six week Self-help Program, 11th printing, Melbourne, Australia. 1990.

Ref. #27 Julia Lier.  “Efficacy of a non-pharmacology intervention for insomnia:  an Empirical investigation doctoral dissertation, Fuller Theological Seminary, Los Angles, California, 1997.

Ref. # 28 Alexander Winkler.  “Effect of Placebo Conditions on Polysomnographic Parameters in Primary Insomnia:  a Meta-analysis”.  Sleep, June 1, 2015:  38(6):  925-931.

Ref. # 29 Zheng-Xiong Xi et al.  “Preclinical Pharmacological efficacy, and safety of varenicline in smoking cessation and utility in high risk patients”.  Drug Health Patient Safety.  2010; 2:  39-48.

Ref. #30 Contrave Official site for its weight loss drug, internet search Contrave Official Site.

Ref. #31 Worst Pills, Best Pills News “Drug-Induced Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS).  Vol. 25, No.3.

Ref. # 32 Dr. Holly Divine, Pharm Dept.  University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy.

Ref. # 33 Denny T. Lau et al.    “Hospitalized and Death Associated With Potentially Inappropriate Medication Prescriptions among Elderly Nursing Home Residents”. Arch intern Med.  2005; 165(1): 68-74.

Ref. # 34 S.L. Rogers et al.  “A24 week, double blind, placebo controlled trial of donepezil in patients with AZ”.  The Amer. Academy of Neurology, 1998 Jan; 50(1):  136-145.

Ref. # 35 D. L. Palms et al.  “Comparison of Antibiotic Prescribing in Retail Clinics, Urgent Care Centers, Emergency Departments, and Traditional Care Settings in the U.S.”.  JAMA Internal Med.  Published online July 16, 2018.

Chapter 6

Ref. #1 “The Statin Umbrella”.  Science News, May 13, 2017, beg. Page 23.

Ref. #1a John Kjekshus et al.  “Reducing the risk of coronary events:  Evidence from the Scandinavian Simvastatin survival study (4s).  The Amer. J. of Cardiology, Vol.76, Issue 9, Supplement 1, 28 Sept. 1995, pp. 64c-68c.

Ref. #2 Boomershine, Chad G.  “Pregabalin for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome”.  Journal of Pain Res. 2010, 3, 81-88.

Ref. #3 “The Reproducibility Project:  Psychology”.    Science.  28 Aug. 2015. Vol. 160 101126/science. Aac. 4716.

Ref. #4 Sheline, Yvette et al. “Untreated Depression and Hippocampal Volume loss”.  Journal of psychiatry. Vol. 160, Issue 8, Aug. 2003.

Ref. #5 Consumer Reports.  “Review of the scientific literature on the dangers of CT Scans and X rays:  patients are often exposed to cancer-causing radiation for little medical reason”.  Published online:  January 27, 2015.

Ref. #6 Online Comparison of Certified Nurse-Midwives, Certified Midwives and Certified Professional Midwives.

Ref. #7 Jan Blustein and Jianmeng Liu.  “Time to consider the risks of caesarean delivery for long term health”. BMJ. 2015; 350: h2410.

Ref. #8 Siegel, Robert Anthony.  “Why take Fake Pills”.  Smithsonian. 2017 Vol. 48, Number 2, beg. Page 21.

Ref. #9 Elizabeth Burns et al.  “Death from falls among Persons Age 65 and over in the U.S. 2007-2016.  Center for Disease Control.  May 11, 2018.

Ref. #10 Worst Pills.  “Drugs that Increase the Risk of Falling”. Jan. 2017, Vol. 22.

Ref. #11 Khong, T.P. et al.  “Potential impact of Benzodiazepine Use on the rate of hip fractures in Five European Countries and the U.S.”  Calcif. Tissue Int. 2013, July.  91(1): 24-31.

Ref. #12 The Center for Disease Control and Prevention.  “Overdose Deaths Involving Prescription Opioids”.  August 1, 2017.

Ref. #13 CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain—United States, March 18, 2014.

Ref. #14 Jarred W. Younger et al. Prescription opioid analgesics rapidly change the human brain”.  Pain.  2018. 152(8):  1803-1810.

Ref. #15 Forbes Magazine.  “U.S. Healthcare expenditures”.  Dan Monrow contributor.  Feb 2, 2014.

Ref. #16 CNBC on  “U.S. Healthcare costs”. July 28, 2016.

Chapter 7

No References