This paper, written by Robert Whitaker, provides an in-depth review of research into the long-term effects of antipsychotics as a treatment for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. It makes the case that these medications, on the whole, worsen the chronicity of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, and impair functional outcomes. This paper updates the “case made against antipsychotics” in Anatomy of an Epidemic (with a second edition published in 2015.)
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