A study in Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology finds that in a sample of 641 adopted adolescents, an increase in the level of ADHD symptoms was predicted by the duration of exposure to early attachment deprivation.
Roskam, I., Stievenart, M., Tessier, R., Muntean, A., et al; Another way of thinking about ADHD: the predictive role of early attachment deprivation in adolescents’ level of symptoms. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. January 2014, 49(1) 133-144
I wonder if this helps to explain the prevalence of ADHD in preemies. My oldest was 27 weeks and is in this category. By nature of the NICU (even the “good” one he was lucky enough to stay in), bonding becomes extremely difficult although the preemies need it even more than “normal” babies.
I have thought that it would be ideal to have several small saunas that the mothers and babies could spend skin-to-skin time in. The temp could be set to be the same as the incubators. Mothers would be able to spend much more time in that environment than preemies can spend out of the incubator.