Bewitched, Bothered & Bewildered


In Salem Village in the winter of 1692, the young daughter and niece of the village’s first ordained minister Reverend Samuel Parris began exhibiting strange behavior.  Nine-year-old Betty Parris and her 11-year-old cousin Abigail Williams screamed, threw things about the room, uttered strange sounds, crawled under furniture, and contorted themselves into peculiar positions. The girls complained of being pinched and pricked with pins. A local doctor could find no physical evidence of any ailment.

When other young women in the village started exhibiting similar behaviours Sarah Good, a homeless begger, Sarah Osborne, a woman who rarely attended church, Tituba, a slave from a minority ethnic group, and Dorothy Good, a four-year-old child, were accused of bewitching the girls. They were interrogated and sent to jail.

As accusations of witchcraft increased so did those detained and a special court was created to prosecute the accused. The first case brought to trial was that of Bridget Bishop.  Bridget’s black clothing and unusual costumes were a focus of the trial and she was questioned closely about her coat which had been awkwardly “cut or torn in two ways.”  This breach of puritan social norms, and her immoral lifestyle, was evidence of her of a being a witch.  She went to trial the same day and was found guilty.  She was executed by hanging on June 10, 1692.

Most people these days recognize that neither the young women of Salem nor the others supposedly afflicted by witchcraft for which an estimated 50,000 to 200,000 were executed were actually bewitched. In fact, while physical illnesses such as Lymes Disease have been suggested as the cause of the symptoms exhibited by the afflicted, psychiatric explanations are the most widely promoted and accepted.  According to scholars, the young women suffered PTSD or Somatoform Disorder rather than suffering the effects of being given the evil eye by a woman who had sexual relations with Satan or one of his demons.

Am I the only one to find this hilarious?  Scholars reject the evidence for witchcraft but accept the evidence for psychiatry.  In my view that’s akin to rejecting the evidence for astrology but accepting it for alchemy.

Let’s look at the similarities between witchcraft and psychiatry.  Much of the evidence used against witches was spectral evidence, or the testimony of the bewitched person who claimed to see the apparition of the person who had bewitched them.  Subjective, pretty unreliable evidence based on the views and observations (and not uncommonly the spite, petty jealousies and aggression) of friends, family and community members. Much of the evidence of mental disorders is based on subjective views and observations of the same groups.  Like psychiatry, witch hunters believed being a witch was genetic with evidence that one’s parents were witches being sufficient proof that a child was a witch.

Spectral evidence was controversial and seen as providing a poor evidence base, so more scientific understandings of witchcraft and witch detection were developed.  This scientific evidence base for witchcraft was the doctrine of Effluvia, which posited that witches afflicted others by the use of “venomous and malignant particles, that were ejected from the eye.”

Belief in effluvia led to a range of diagnostic testing including the ‘witch cake’ and the ‘touch test.’  Witch cakes were baked using rye flour and urine from the person affected by witchcraft and given to dogs to eat.  According to expert understanding of bewitching methods, the witch herself would be hurt when the dog ate the cake due to the presence of invisible particles she had sent to afflict the person, which remained in the urine.  Identification was a simple matter of following the cries of pain as the cake was consumed.

The touch test was the equivalent of a brief screening tool.  Witches could be quickly identified by requiring them to touch a victim in a bewitched state.  If the screaming/throwing things/contorting behaviour stopped, that meant the accused was the person who had afflicted the victim.

The scientific evidence underpinning this process was explained by experts thus;

The Witch by the cast of her eye sends forth a Malefick Venome into the Bewitched to cast him into a fit, and therefore the touch of the hand doth by sympathy cause that venome to return into the Body of the Witch again.

Biological psychiatry uses evidence with similar scientific weight.  Chemical imbalances that cannot be detected, brain disorders with no physical manifestation and research evidence based on swim tests for mice.

Like psychiatry, the identification and treatment of bewitching was set out in a manual, the Malleus Maleficarum.  This manual is divided into three sections, the first setting out the evidence for witchcraft, the second describing its indicators and treatment and the third advising the courts on confronting and combating witchcraft.

The key purpose of the Malleus was to refute arguments claiming that witchcraft does not exist, to discredit those who expressed skepticism about its existance, to show that witches were more often women than men, and to provide instruction on procedures for identifying and convicting them. Between 1487 and 1520, twenty editions of the Malleus were published, and another sixteen editions were published between 1574 and 1669.

The DSM-5 similarly attempts to give credibility to a process for identifying and treating mental disorders, and a rationale for their detention and forced treatment. It attempts to silence skeptics by couching subjective assessments of deviance in medical terms and to put psychiatry on a par with branches of medical science which have biological findings as their basis.

In the 300 years since the executions of witches in Salem and around the world, the descendent families have sought compensation for the unjust and unscientific labeling, abuse, and killing of their loved ones.

In 1992, The Danvers Tercentennial Committee persuaded the Massachusetts House of Representatives to issue a resolution honoring those who had died. Finally signed on October 31, 2001, by Governor Jane Swift, more than 300 years after these abuses and injustices were perpetrated, those labelled witches were proclaimed innocent.

The new head of the World Psychiatric Association, Professor Dinesh Bhugra, has recently come out to say his profession should apologise for the way it has treated gay people and women, two key groups targeted by witch hunters in the past and by psychiatry in the present.  I’d like to see transgender people, mothers of autistic children (so-called refrigerator mothers) and the families of those who have suicided on psychiatric drugs added to this list.

Research suggests the women accused as witches were characterized by their strong personalities and defiance of social expectations for proper female decorum. I suspect we mothers who have been propelled into activism as a result of our children’s deaths at the hands of the mental health system and its drugs would have caused a run on the ingredients for witch cakes back in Salem as we disseminate ‘venomous and malignant particles’, from fngers that fly over our keyboards.

Undoubtedly  it will take a lot longer before we are viewed as anything other than ‘hysterical’ and suffering from ‘prolonged grief disorder’ or some other ailment which has no more basis in fact that witchcraft. Undoubtedly our children’s deaths will continue to be ascribed to the affliction of mental illness rather than to the drugs they were prescribed and undoubtedly we will have to wait a little longer for the apology that we are due from psychiatry. Like the descendents of those labelled witches however, we don’t intend to give up on seeking truth and justice for our loved ones and challenging the unscientific beliefs which led to their deaths.  In defiance of social norms around maternal grief, don’t expect to see us weeping decorously into little lace hankies any time soon.

As we head into Christmas without our loved ones, my thoughts are with the mothers of children whose death was based on the doctrine of mental illness rather than effluvia, and who like me are likely to see the deep irony of psychiatric explanations being used to explain the behaviours of those who, previously, might have been seen to be afflicted by witchcraft. Sending you much love and strength.

Previous articleMental Health Advocates Protest Congressional Mental Health Bill
Next articleADHD Advocate Says ADHD Diagnosis Rates are a “Disaster”
Maria Bradshaw
DelusionNZ: Maria Bradshaw lost her only child to SSRI induced suicide in 2008. Co-founder and CEO of CASPER (Community Action on Suicide Prevention Education & Research), Maria promotes a social model of suicide prevention focused on strengthening community cohesion, addressing the social drivers of suicide and providing communities with the knowledge and tools required to reclaim suicide prevention from mental health professionals. Maria has an MBA from Auckland University and particular interests in sociological and indigenous models of suicide prevention, prescription drug induced suicide, pharmacovigilance and alternatives to psychiatric interventions for emotional distress. Maria has researched and written a number of papers challenging the medical model of suicide prevention.


  1. This is the best comparison of what psychiatry truly is that I’ve ever seen. I never thought of it before, but you are absolutely right! Let us hope that it doesn’t take 300 years to get some apologies and some resolutions to the problem that psychiatry and the drug companies have created. Far too many people have their lives destroyed by this stupidity just like strong-willed and independent thinking women were destroyed 300 years ago.

    Report comment

  2. satan, witches and magic? Heh. LOL.

    I’m a Living Witness of satan in its genuine physical form. I have a MAGE tattoo (LOTS of personal meaning). A mage is a magician, the plural is magi. I’ve been accused of being a witch. Hatefully.

    I burn a lot. I’ve been burning since 2005. Science says it’s a vitamin deficiency.

    I’ve touched people and brought them to calm and tranquility after having been troubled, in some way. A child who squirmed, crying and yelling on his mother’s lap, a screaming infant, a belligerent drunk woman, a strange man I took into my arms and turned him, once heavier than lead, light as a feather…

    There’s been black magic this year but most don’t know about it. Not like I do.

    Happy Friday the 13th in the 13th year.

    Report comment

  3. Oh, yes, Maria I can only imagine what our fate would have been if we had lived 300+ years ago during the witch trials. Thanks for being such an admirable voice of reason and for representing those of us who now do our best to speak out against the egregious harms our “children” have suffered especially at the hands of the tainted MH system. Just today, I came across the d/c summary from my son’s locked psych (supposedly )”voluntary” stay (though the records I obtained speak for themselves- once deceptively tricked to go inside he pulled the fire alarm to try to escape). Imagine what happened to my son at that point:( As I re-read the discharge summary, my anger swells. The p-doc from his errors and blatant arrogance churned out yet another summary on someone he clearly knew nothing about…. there are so many mistruths on the report. What did it matter that this p-doc after 13 days of “caring” for my son had no clue who my son was, what the stressors were in his young life, or how the psychoactive “recreational” drug he tested + (cannabis) for had altered his brain. The proof is in the summary. Sad, that this “professional” cared so little as to call one of the family (HIPAA waived) on my son’s admission form (clearly identified) or the psychologist whose care my son had been under? Nope, rush to judge, label, massively overdrug, then “dump” once my son’s insurance refused further stay
    and the $15,000 we, his parents, forked over upon admission. The biggest joke is the H&P by the p-doc and the med doctor are in complete contrast. The p-doc had so many contradictions, so sad this how “the system” is allowed to operate.

    Sending warmest wishes at Christmas, though without the children that we created and bore in our lives, it is not the same. I know- today- Dec 13th is the 23rd month that my son took his life, shattering the world my husband and I built around our two boys. Nothing is the same, but somehow, resilience and strength propel us forward. I truly believe, as you have shown, we can make a difference in our sons’ memories.

    Report comment

  4. Lets turn it around, Practicing psychiatry is like practicing witchcraft. The term “psychiatry” was first coined by the German physician Johann Christian Reil in 1808 and literally means the ‘medical treatment of the soul’ (psych-: soul; from Ancient Greek psykhē: soul; -iatry: medical treatment.

    Report comment

  5. Absolutely brilliant post Maria. You have certainly found a worthy match for the evil that was witch hunting in today’s world. It’s incredible that there are so many parallels between witch hunting and psychiatry. How was the evil practice eventually toppled? Can we learn something there and rid humanity of psychiatry’s medical mimicry?
    I wish you a good Christmas, I know it means little without Toran.

    Report comment

  6. Thx, Copy_Cat, though I’ve not seen this consumer complaint site, I am working on some other ways to expose the egregious experiences my son suffered. Eventually, I hope my efforts will bring attention to the naive public’s eyes. I thank you for your kindness and support. The MIA folks have (in the 12 months I joined this site) helped me begin to comprehend what my son endured. I have come to accept, his death could and should have been prevented. His catastrophic exposure to the MH system IMO caused him irreparable harm.

    Report comment

    • Here is what one family did ,

      April 15, 2001 this website was created in hopes of providing parents and guardians with information about the truth behind ADHD and the drugs used to treat children diagnosed with ADD or ADHD.

      We built this website because we didn’t want other children to die or suffer side effects because of their parents lack of knowledge.

      We did all we could to convince state and federal government about the methods used in the miss-diagnosing of thousands of children with in ADD – Attention Deficit Disorder and ADHD Attention hyperactivity disorder of ADHD and psychotropic drugging of children with Ritalin and other drugs.

      Since the death of our 14-year-old son Matthew caused from the use of Ritalin prescribed for ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) our family has been informing others world wide via the internet about ADHD and the dangers of psychotropic drugs in memory of our son and countless other children that have died over the years as a direct result of using psychotropic drugs.

      We wish to expose the health risks, dangers, deaths and suicides that are a direct result of administering Ritalin and other psychiatric drugs to children.

      I chose the screen name “copy cat” one day cause I found the fastest most efficient way for me to expose what’s really going on is by copy pasting linking to whats already written exposing the truth in places where people will read it, find it.

      Sometimes I question how much time I spend doing this, should I spend more time working on my things or making money ? How does this benefit me ?

      I’m not sure but I keep doing it.

      Report comment

  7. “A Tamarac mother sued Fort Lauderdale Hospital and a psychiatrist who worked there, saying they overmedicated her teenage son with a cocktail of mental health drugs — some of which have not been approved for the treatment of children.

    The boy, Emilio Villamar, died of a sudden heart attack. He was 16.”

    Read more:

    Report comment

  8. yes, psychiatrists are like sorcerers who can change something into something else by a word or action. They can take a person, a human being, and by a magic word (psychotic, manic, defiant, obsessive) turn her into something else entirely: a subhuman with a broken brain, not worthy of human rights, not to be believed, to be controlled and managed by whatever means are at hand.

    Report comment

  9. You say “Am I the only one to find this hilarious?” It would be hilarious if it weren’t so sad.

    Sometimes I wonder how many lives could be saved if psychiatrists would just learn to say three little words: “I don’t know.” As in “I don’t know what is causing your distress.” “I don’t know if these meds will help.” “I don’t know if you will get better or not.” Why do they keep pretending to know the answers? Being lied to does not help patients or their families.

    Report comment