Supporting Resources: “The Case for 100% Voluntary”


Supporting Resources:

10th Annual Conference on Human Rights and Psychiatric Oppression (1982), Declaration of Principles (1982), (Toronto, Canada)

Minkowitz, T. (June 13, 2014) ‘Why Do We Say That Mental Health Detention is Discrimination?’,;

United Nations Convention Against Torture, Statement of the Special Rapporteur on Torture (Mar 4, 2013)

United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (1986), Art. 12, 14; General Comment No. 1 on Article 12; Guidelines on Article 14.

1.     These issues are universal not medical

Chamberlin, Judi (1978). On Our Own: Patient­Controlled Alternatives to the Mental Health System. NY: Hawthorne.

Peck, M. Scott (1978). The Road Less Traveled: A New Psychology of Love, Traditional Values and Spiritual Growth. NY:  Simon & Schuster

Zinman, S., Harp, H., & Budd, S. (Eds.) (1987). Reaching across: Mental health clients helping each other. Riverside, CA: California Network.

2.     Clinicians are lousy predictors

Dolan, M & M. Doyle, Violence risk prediction: Clinical and actuarial measures and the role of the Psychopathy Checklist Brit J Psy Oct 2000, 177 (4) 303-311

Lidz C.W. et al. The accuracy of predictions of violence to others JAMA. 1994; 269:1007–1011

Nock,M, et al. Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys PLoS Med. 2009 Aug; 6(8): e1000123;

Pokorny AD, Suicide prediction revisited Suicide Life Threat Behav. 1993 Spring;23(1):1-10;

Pokorny AD, Prediction of suicide in psychiatric patients. Report of a prospective study Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1983 Mar;40(3):249-57.

Ribeiro JD et al, Self-injurious thoughts and behaviors as risk factors for future suicide ideation, attempts, and death: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies Psychol Med. 2016 Jan;46(2):225-36; PLoS Med. 2009 Aug; 6(8):

Singh, JP et al. Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Schizophrenia and Other Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review of the Validity, Reliability, and Item Content of 10 Available Instruments Schizophr Bull. 2011 September; 37(5): 899–912

Swanson, J, et al.  Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy Ann Epidemiol. 2015 May; 25(5): 366–376

3.     Drugs, at best, are problematic

Breggin, P, ‘Psychiatric Drug Facts with Dr. Peter Breggin’,

Carey, B (Sep 16, 2015) “Antidepressant Paxil Is Unsafe for Teenagers, New Analysis Says”, NY Times,

Luhrman, TM (Jan 17 2015) ‘Redefining Mental Illness’ in New York Times, ;

Kirsch, I (2010), The Emperor’s New Drugs: Exploding the Antidepressant Myth (NY: Basic)

Mind Freedom International, “Alternatives to the Traditional Mental Health System”,;

Minkowitz, T (June 13, 2014) ‘Why Do We Say That Mental Health Detention is Discrimination?’,;

Whitaker, RH (Spring 2005). ‘Anatomy of an Epidemic’ in Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry (Springer) 7 (I),

Whitaker, RH (2010).  Anatomy of an Epidemic.  New York: Random House

4.     Promising alternatives are not being considered

Alternative and Complementary Treatments, Zesson, D (2015), Codex Alternus: A Research Collection of Alternative and Complementary Treatments for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder and Associated Drug-Induced Side Effects.  CreateSpace: Amazon,

Alternatives to Suicide,

Crisis Alternatives,

Consumer Operated Services,

Emotional CPR,

Harm Reduction Guide to Coming of Psychiatric Drugs,

Hearing Voices Network, and

Icarus Project,

Intentional Peer Support,

Listening to Veterans,

Mind Freedom International, ‘Alternatives to the Traditional Mental Health System’,

Open dialogue, and

Support for basic needs and human rights,


Wellness Recovery Actions Planning (WRAP),

Trauma informed local governments, agencies and policies,

Trauma-informed peer support,

5.     Natural diversity is not a pathology

King, ML, Jr. (1968) ‘The Role of the Behavioral Scientist in the Civil Rights Movement’,

SAMHSA (2010) Consumer-Operated Services KIT: The Evidence,

Sapolsky, R. (1998.) The Trouble With Testosterone: And Other Essays On The Biology Of The Human Predicament (NY: Touchstone).

6.     This is about trauma, not disordered brains

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Study – findings and other articles,;

Anna Institute,

Becker, M et al. Characteristics of women engaged in treatment for trauma and co-occurring disorders: Findings from a national multisite study J. Comm Psych 33:4 429–443 (Jy 2005)

Bryant, R.A. & M.L. O’Donnell, et al., The psychiatric sequelae of traumatic injury. Am J Psychiatry. 2010 Mar;167(3):312-20;

Chen, L.P. & M.H. Murad, MD, et al., Sexual Abuse and Lifetime Diagnosis of Psychiatric Disorders: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, Mayo Clin Proc. 2010 July; 85(7): 618–629;

Dansky, B.S. & M.E. Saladin et al. Prevalence of victimization and posttraumatic stress disorder among women with substance use disorders: comparison of telephone and in-person assessment samples, Int J Addict. 1995 Jul;30(9):1079-99;

Felitti, R.F. & D.N. Anda, et al., Relationship of Childhood Abuse and Household Dysfunction to Many of the Leading Causes of Death in Adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study, American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1998 May; 14(4): 245-258.

Greenberger, D & C Padesky (1995) Mind Over Mood: Change How You Feel by Changing the Way You Think  (NY: Guilford Press).

Harris, NB (Sep 2014), ‘How Childhood Trauma Affects Health Across a Lifetime’ (Ted Talk),

Lanius, R. & E. Vermetten eds. (2010) The Hidden Epidemic: The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease” Cambridge U. Press

Mead, S (2008), Intentional Peer Support: An Alternative Approach (Amazon eBook),

McHugo GJ, Kammerer N, et al. Women, Co-occurring Disorders, and Violence Study: evaluation design and study population, J Subst Abuse Treat. 2005 Mar;28(2):91-107;

Miller, WR (2000) Rediscovering fire: small interventions, large effects. Psychol Addict Behav. 14(1):6-18,

Miller, WR & S Rollnick (2013) Motivational Interviewing: Helping People Change (NY: Guildford Press)

National Council on Behavioral Health (2011), Breaking the Silence: Trauma-Informed Behavioral Healthcare (2:2011),

National Technical Assistance Center for State Mental Health Planning (NTAC), et al. The Damaging Consequences of Violence and Trauma: Facts, Discussion Points, and Recommendations for the Behavioral Health System (2004), SRBriefings/I_1_A_ NASMHPD_TraumaPositonStatement.pdf

Sapolsky, R. (2004). Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers (Holt/Owl).

Spatz WC Childhood Victimization: Early Adversity, Later Psychopathology (January 2000) NIJ Journal, (NCJ 180077);

Spiegel, A.

Vermilyea, E. (2000), Growing Beyond Survival: A Self-Help Toolkit for Managing Traumatic Stress 3-9 (Baltimore, MD: Sidran)

Wellness & Recovery Human Rights Campaign (Sep 27, 2015). ‘Human Rights and Mental Distress – It’s Time We Made the Connection’, and

Wellness & Recovery Human Rights Campaign (Nov 8, 2015). “Mental Health Consumer Protection Legislation – [Your State Here]”,

Whitaker, R. & L. Cosgrove (2015), Psychiatry Under the Influence: Institutional Corruption, Social Injury and Prescriptions for Reform. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

White, W & Miller, W (2007). The use of confrontation in addiction treatment: History, science and time for change. Counselor, 8(4), 12-30,

7.     Do the math – it adds up to ‘voluntary’

Law Project for Psychiatric Rights (PsychRights),

Wellness & Recovery Human Rights Campaign (Nov 2, 2015). ‘Federal Minimum Standards for a Community Mental Health Infrastructure’,

Wellness & Recovery Human Rights Campaign (Sep 27, 2015). ‘Reason, Conscience and the Unaffordable Opportunity Costs of Treatment as Usual’,

8.     The continued prejudice against people with psychosocial disabilities is not worthy of a free society.

Caplan, PJ (Apr 28, 2012). “Psychiatry’s bible, the DSM, is doing more harm than good.” Washington Post,

Caplan, PJ (Mar 25, 2011)  Science Isn’t Golden: Who decides what’s good science and treatment?, Psychology Today,

Caplan, PJ (1995) They Say You’re Crazy: How The World’s Most Powerful Psychiatrists Decide Who’s Normal  (Perseus Books:

Dellums, R (1990), Statement of Rep. Ron Dellums (D.- Calif.) during the final passage of the ADA in the House of Representatives,

Insel, T (Apr. 29, 2013) Transforming Diagnosis, Director’s Blog (CMS),

Sharav, V (May 8, 2013) Two NIMH Directors Debunk DSM & Deplore Psychiatry’s Unscientific Modus Operandi, Alliance for Human Research Protection,

Whitaker, R. (2010). Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill. New York: Basic Books


Mad in America hosts blogs by a diverse group of writers. These posts are designed to serve as a public forum for a discussion—broadly speaking—of psychiatry and its treatments. The opinions expressed are the writers’ own.


Mad in America has made some changes to the commenting process. You no longer need to login or create an account on our site to comment. The only information needed is your name, email and comment text. Comments made with an account prior to this change will remain visible on the site.