Many thanks for reviewing these results and helping share them further, Bernalyn. Really appreciate all the comments above. For those wanting to know more about the finer points of the paper, the fulltext is available free to anyone using this link until the 25th of November: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1XrOtbZg70SRn Withdrawal is not something we can realistically put a specified timeframe around and say that’s long enough for everyone. The associations I found with gradual withdrawal were small, and as a number of people point out above, method is only one small part of the picture, and definitely relapse should not be the main outcome being looked at. I was more focused on looking at what helps people succeed than relapse. But relapse did get in the way of success, so looking at ways to assist people to manage that does seem important. In another paper I show that having support for the attempt also shows association with success and avoiding relapse during the attempt. And in another yet to be published study habitual use of avoidant coping partially predicted quality of life among those who continued and those who stopped (available on research gate in my thesis), and I think this would likely also be at play during withdrawal, and certainly all the qualitative studies highlight the role of coping too. It really is a very complicated process, and everyone caught in the loop of it has all my empathy (and my commitment to keep doing my little bit to help shift things in a direction that might make it easier).