Marni, The posted article has fewer references than the original to make it more readable. The original had over 50 references to books, articles, and federal statutes. I’d be glad to send it to you If you have a Facebook page, send me a friend request, and I’ll send the original to you. My Facebook name is Michael E. Sturman. Otherwise, Facebook will not allow us to connect. Or an e-mail would do. I think when you see the original article, you’ll see there is good reason to question the safety and effectiveness of ECT for many people. I am sure you are aware there are always some people who benefit from the placebo effect of a medical procedure or drug when others report no effect or harm. That’s why I argue it’s important to find out what’s going on with MRI scan and Neuropsychological testing. I think it is wrong to go on with ECT “as usual” without knowing more.