Critical Psychiatry Textbook: References

This page contains the full list of citations for the book Critical Psychiatry Textbook by Peter Gøtzsche, which is being serialized on Mad in America. The chapters are available to read here, with a new chapter becoming available every Monday.


1 Whitaker R. Mad in America: bad science, bad medicine, and the enduring mistreatment of the mentally ill. Cambridge: Perseus Books Group; 2002.

2 Healy D. Let them eat Prozac. New York: New York University Press; 2004.

3 Moncrieff J. The myth of the chemical cure: a critique of psychiatric drug treatment. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; 2007.

4 Moncrieff J. The bitterest pills. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; 2013.

5 Whitaker R. Anatomy of an epidemic, 2nd edition. New York: Broadway Paperbacks; 2015.

6 Gøtzsche PC. Deadly medicines and organised crime: How big pharma has corrupted health care. London: Radcliffe Publishing; 2013.

7 Gøtzsche PC. Deadly psychiatry and organised denial. Copenhagen: People’s Press; 2015

8 Gøtzsche PC. Mental health survival kit and withdrawal from psychiatric drugs. Ann Arbor: L H Press; 2022.

9 McLaren N. Anxiety, the inside story. How biological psychiatry got it wrong. Ann Arbor: Future Psychiatry Press; 2018.

10 Timimi S. Insane medicine: How the mental health industry creates damaging treatment traps and how you can escape them. Seattle: Kindle Direct Publishing; 2021.

11 Breggin PR. Brain-disabling treatments in psychiatry: drugs, electroshock, and the psychopharmaceutical complex. New York: Springer; 2008.

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13 Kroken RA, Kjelby E, Wentzel-Larsen T, et al. Time to discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs in a schizophrenia cohort: influence of current treatment strategies. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol 2014;4:228-39.

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15 te Meerman S, Batstra L, Freedman JE, Hoekstra, R, Grietens H. ADHD and brain anatomy: What do academic textbooks used in the Netherlands tell students? Children & Society 2019. doi:10.1111/chso.12362.

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17 Simonsen E, Møhl B (red.). Grundbog i psykiatri. København: Hans Reitzels Forlag; 2017.

18 Videbech P, Kjølbye M, Sørensen T, Vestergaard P (red.). Psykiatri. En lærebog om voksnes psykiske sygdomme. København: FADL’s Forlag; 2018.

19 Thomsen PH, Rask CU, Bilenberg N (red.). Børne- og ungdomspsykiatri. København: FADLs Forlag; 2019.

20 Starrfelt R, Gerlach C, Gade A (red.). Klinisk neuropsykologi. København: Frydenlund; 2021.

21 Breggin P. Medication madness. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin; 2008.

22 Rosen RC, Lane RM, Menza M. Effects of SSRIs on sexual function: a critical review. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1999;19:67-85.

23 van Marwijk H, Allick G, Wegman F, et al. Alprazolam for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;7:CD007139.

24 Moncrieff J, Cohen D. Do antidepressants cure or create abnormal brain states? PLoS Med 2006;3:e240.

25 Gonon F. The dopaminergic hypothesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder needs re-examining. Trends Neurosci 2009;32:2-8.

26 Gøtzsche PC. The Chinese virus: Killed millions and scientific freedom. Antwerp: Global Well, Publishing Services; 2022.

27 Joseph J. Twin studies in psychiatry and psychology: science or pseudoscience? Psychiatr Q 2002;73:71-82.

28 Bouchard TJ Jr, Lykken DT, McGue M, et al. Sources of human psychological differences: the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Science 1990 12;250:223-8.

29 Joseph J. A reevaluation of the 1990 “Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart” IQ study. Human Development 2022;66:48-65.

30 Tienari P. Interaction between genetic vulnerability and family environment: the Finnish adoptive family study of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1991;84:460-5.

31 Moncrieff J. Does antipsychotic withdrawal provoke psychosis? Review of the literature on rapid onset psychosis (supersensitivity psychosis) and withdrawal-related relapse. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2006;114:3-13.

32 Chouinard G. Severe cases of neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis: diagnostic criteria for the disorder and its treatment. Schizophrenia Research 1990;5:21-33.

33 FDA package insert for Prozac (fluoxetine). Accessed 21 April 2022.

34 FDA package insert for Ritalin (methylphenidate). Accessed 28 April 2022.

35 Varese F, Smeets F, Drukker M, et al. Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: a meta-analysis of patient control, prospective- and cross-sectional cohort studies. Schizophr Bull 2012;38:661-71.

36 Shevlin M, Houston JE, Dorahy MJ, et al. Cumulative traumas and psychosis: an analysis of the national comorbidity survey and the British Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Schizophr Bull 2008;34:193-9.

37 Kingdon D, Sharma T, Hart D and the Schizophrenia Subgroup of the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ Changing Mind Campaign. What attitudes do psychiatrists hold towards people with mental illness? Psychiatric Bulletin 2004;28:401-6.

38 Zammit S, Allebeck P, David AS, et al. A longitudinal study of premorbid IQ Score and risk of developing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, severe depression, and other nonaffective psychoses. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004;61:354-60.

39 Angermeyer MC, Holzinger A, Carta MG, et al. Biogenetic explanations and public acceptance of mental illness: systematic review of population studies. Br J Psychiatry 2011;199:367–72.

40 Read J, Haslam N, Magliano L. Prejudice, stigma and “schizophrenia:” the role of bio-genetic ideology. In: Models of Madness, 2nd Ed. (John Read and Jacqui Dillon, eds.). London: Routledge, 2013.

41 Read J, Haslam N, Sayce L, et al. Prejudice and schizophrenia: a review of the “mental illness is an illness like any other” approach. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006;114:303-18.

42 Kvaale EP, Haslam N, Gottdiener WH. The ‘side effects’ of medicalization: a meta-analytic review of how biogenetic explanations affect stigma. Clin Psychol Rev 2013;33:782–94.

43 Lebowitz MS, Ahn WK. Effects of biological explanations for mental disorders on clinicians’ empathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2014;111:17786-90.

44 FDA package insert for Valium (diazepam). Accessed 20 June 2022.

45 Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Hoog SL, et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation syndrome: a randomised clinical trial. Biol Psychiatry 1998;44:77-87.

46 Gøtzsche PC. Survival in an overmedicated world: look up the evidence yourself. Copenhagen: People’s Press; 2019.

47 Taubes G. Epidemiology faces its limits. Science 1995;269:164–9.

48 Hatch B, Healey DM, Halperin JM. Associations between birth weight and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity: indirect effects via primary neuropsychological functions. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2014;55:384-92.

49 Botting N, Powls A, Cooke RW, et al. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and other psychiatric outcomes in very low birthweight children at 12 years. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1997;38:931-41.

50 Deeks JJ, Dinnes J, D’Amico R, et al. Evaluating non-randomised intervention studies. Health Technol Assess 2003;7:1–173.

51 Morrow RL, Garland EJ, Wright JM, et al. Influence of relative age on diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. CMAJ 2012;184:755-62.

52 Hahn P. ADHD: The money trail. Mad in America 2022; May 4.

53 Visser SN, Danielson ML, Bitsko RH, et al. Trends in the parent-report of health care provider-diagnosed and medicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: United States, 2003-2011. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014;53:34-46.e2.

54 Williams NM, Zaharieva I, Martin A, et al. Rare chromosomal deletions and duplications in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a genome-wide analysis. Lancet 2010;376:1401-8.

55 Glessner JT, Li J, Wang D, et al. Copy number variation meta-analysis reveals a novel duplication at 9p24 associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. Genome Med 2017;9: 106.

56 Hoogman M, Bralten J, Hibar DP, et al. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults: a cross-sectional mega-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry 2017;4:310-9.

57 Whitaker R. Medicating preschoolers for ADHD: How “evidence-based” psychiatry has led to a tragic end. Mad in America 2022; Feb 19.

58 Batstra L, Te Meerman S, Conners K, et al. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults. Lancet Psychiatry 2017;4:439.

59 Dehue T, Bijl D, de Winter M, et al. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults. Lancet Psychiatry 2017;4:438-9.

60 ADHD & the brain. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2017; Feb.

61 Faraone SV, Banaschewski T, Coghill D, et al. The World Federation of ADHD International Consensus Statement: 208 Evidence-based conclusions about the disorder. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021;128:789-818.

61 Nunn SPT, Kritsotakis EI, Harpin V, et al. Social gradients in the receipt of medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and young people in Sheffield. B J Psych Open 2020;6:e14.

62 Perroud N, Salzmann A, Prada P, et al. Response to psychotherapy in borderline personality disorder and methylation status of the BDNF gene. Transl Psychiatry 2013;3:e207.

63 Ho BC, Andreasen NC, Ziebell S, et al. Long-term antipsychotic treatment and brain volumes: a longitudinal study of first-episode schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011;68:128-37.

64 Andreasen NC, Liu D, Ziebell S, et al. Relapse duration, treatment intensity, and brain tissue loss in schizophrenia: a prospective longitudinal MRI study. Am J Psychiatry 2013;170:609-15.

65 Haijma SV, Van Haren N, Cahn W, et al. Brain volumes in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis in over 18 000 subjects. Schizophr Bull 2013;39:1129-38.

66 Videbech P, Ravnkilde B. Hippocampal volume and depression: a meta-analysis of MRI studies. Am J Psychiatry 2004;161:1957-66.

67 Valera EM, Faraone SV, Murray KE, et al. Meta-analysis of structural imaging findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2007;61:1361-9.

68 Norman LJ, Carlisi C, Lukito S, et al. Structural and functional brain abnormalities in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A comparative meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 2016;73:815-25.

69 Valera EM, Faraone SV, Biederman J, et al. Functional neuroanatomy of working memory in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2005;57:439-47.

70 Wager T, Lindquist M, Nichols T, et al. Evaluating the consistency and specificity of neuroimaging data using meta-analysis. NeuroImage 2009;45:S210–21.

71 First M, Botteron K, Carter C, et al. Consensus report of the APA Work Group on Neuroimaging Markers of Psychiatric Disorders. Approved by the Board of Trustees, July 2012.

72 Carp J. The secret lives of experiments: methods reporting in the fMRI literature. NeuroImage 2012;63:289–300.

73 Carp J. On the plurality of (methodological) worlds: estimating the analytic flexibility of FMRI experiments. Front Neurosci 2012;6:149.

74 Botvinik-Nezer R, Holzmeister F, Camerer CF, et al. Variability in the analysis of a single neuroimaging dataset by many teams. Nature 2020;582:84-8.

75 Weinberger DR, Radulescu E. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging all over again. JAMA Psychiatry 2021;78:11-2.

76 Marek S, Tervo-Clemmens B, Calabro FJ, et al. Reproducible brain-wide association studies require thousands of individuals. Nature 2022;603:654-60.

77 Simons P. Nature: Brain imaging studies are most likely false. Mad in America 2022; March 21.

78 Barber M. Strengthening research integrity: The role and responsibilities of publishing.
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79 Simons P. People think research is more credible when it includes “extraneous” brain images. Mad in America 2018; May 7.

80 Im S, Varma K, Varma S. Extending the seductive allure of neuroscience explanations effect to popular articles about educational topics. Br J Educ Psychol 2017;87:518-34.

81 Psykiatrien i Region Midtjylland. Updated December 2021, February 2018, March 2022, January 2022, March 2022.

82 France CM, Lysaker PH, Robinson RP. The “chemical imbalance” explanation for depression: origins, lay endorsement, and clinical implications. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 2007;38:411-20.

83 Schopenhauer A. The art of always being right. London: Gibson Square; 2009.

84 Howes OD, Bose SK, Turkheimer F, Valli I, et al. Dopamine synthesis capacity before onset of psychosis: a prospective [18F]-DOPA PET imaging study. Am J Psychiatry 2011;168:1311-7.

85 Lacasse JR, Leo J. Serotonin and depression: a disconnect between the advertisements and the scientific literature. PLoS Med 2005;2:e392.

86 Hindmarch I. Expanding the horizons of depression: beyond the monoamine hypothesis. Hum Psychopharmacol 2001;16:203-218.

87 Kirsch I. The Emperor’s New Drugs: exploding the antidepressant myth. New York: Basic Books; 2009.

88 Angoa-Pérez M, Kane MJ, Briggs DI, et al. Mice genetically depleted of brain serotonin do not display a depression-like behavioral phenotype. ACS Chem Neurosci 2014;5:908–19.

89 Kessing L, Hansen HV, Demyttenaere K, et al. Depressive and bipolar disorders: patients’ attitudes and beliefs towards depression and antidepressants. Psychol Med 2005;35:1205-13.

90 Demasi M, Gøtzsche PC. Presentation of benefits and harms of antidepressants on websites: cross sectional study. Int J Risk Saf Med 2020;31:53-65.

91 Sterll B. Den psykiatriske epidemi. Psykolognyt 2013;20:8-11.

92 Rasmussen LI. Industriens markedsføring er meget, meget effektiv. Den har fået lægerne til at tro på, at eksempelvis antidepressiva er effektive lægemidler. Det er de overhovedet ikke. Politiken 2015; Aug 30.

93 Depression er en folkesygdom – især for kvinder. Psykiatrifonden 2017; Jan 31.

94 Kessing LV. Depression, hvordan virker medicin. Patienthåndbogen 2015; July 5.

95 Videbech P. SSRI, antidepressivum. Patienthåndbogen 2015; July 23.

96 Read J, Moncrieff J. Depression: why drugs and electricity are not the answer. Psychological Medicine 2022; Febr 1:1–10.

97 Ang B, Horowitz M, Moncrieff J. Is the chemical imbalance an ‘urban legend’? An exploration of the status of the serotonin theory of depression in the scientific literature. SSM Mental Health 2022;2:100098.

98 Köhler O, Benros ME, Nordentoft M, et al. Effect of anti-inflammatory treatment on depression, depressive symptoms, and adverse effects: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. JAMA Psychiatry 2014;71:1381-91.

99 Hench PS, Kendall EC, Slocumb CH, et al. The effect of a hormone of the adrenal cortex (17-hydroxy-11-dehydrocorticosterone; compound E) and of pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone on rheumatoid arthritis. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin 1949;24:181-97.

100 Jørgensen FR, Gøtzsche PC, Hein P, et al. Naproxen (Naprosyn) og mobilisering ved behandling af akut ankeldistorsion. Ugeskr Læger 1986;148:1266-8.

101 Gøtzsche PC. Sensitivity of effect variables in rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis of 130 placebo controlled NSAID trials. J Clin Epidemiol 1990;43:1313-8.

102 Caplan PJ. They say you’re crazy: How the world’s most powerful psychiatrists decide who’s normal. Jackson: Da Capo Press, 1995.

103 Dowrick C, Frances A. Medicalising unhappiness: new classification of depression risks more patients being put on drug treatment from which they will not benefit. BMJ 2013;347:f7140.

104 Gøtzsche PC. Surviving psychiatry: a typical case of serious psychiatric drug harms. Mad in America 2020; Jan 7.

105 Gøtzsche PC. Rational diagnosis and treatment. evidence-based clinical decision-making, 4th edition. Chichester: Wiley; 2007.

106 Henkel V, Mergl R, Kohnen R, et al. Identifying depression in primary care: a comparison of different methods in a prospective cohort study. BMJ 2003;326:200-1.

107 Lundh A. [Is there evidence for screening for depression]? Ugeskr Læger 2008;170:1479.

108 Frances A. Saving normal. New York: Harper Collins; 2013.

109 Raven M. Depression and antidepressants in Australia and beyond: a critical public health analysis (PhD thesis). University of Wollongong, Australia; 2012.

110 Kirk SA, Kutchins H. The selling of DSM: the rhetoric of science in psychiatry. New York: Aldine de Gruyter; 1992.

111 Williams JB, Gibbon M, First MB, et al. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). II. Multisite test-retest reliability. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992;49:630-6.

112 Watts G. More psychiatrists attack plans for DSM-5. BMJ 2012;344:e3357.

113 Gøtzsche PC. Long-term use of antipsychotics and antidepressants is not evidence-based. Int J Risk Saf Med 2020;31:37-42.

114 Gøtzsche PC. Long-term use of benzodiazepines, stimulants and lithium is not evidence-based. Clin Neuropsychiatry 2020;17:281-3.

115 Mirowski J. Subjective boundaries and combinations in psychiatric diagnoses. J Mind Behav 1990;11:407-24.

116 Moynihan R. Medicalization. A new deal on disease definition. BMJ 2011;342:d2548.

117 Optimal health in a happy society: towards a new biomedical and social model. Global-Well 2022; May 5.

118 Spencer M. The Carter Center’s guide for mental health journalism: don’t question, follow the script. Mad in America 2020; Feb 23.

119 Whitaker R. Den psykiatriske epidemi: Illusionen om mirakelpillen. Søborg: Psykovisions Forlag; 2013.

120 Pedersen AT. En psykiatrisk diagnose hænger ved resten af livet. PsykiatriAvisen 2019; Jan 18.

121 Frandsen P. Et anker af flamingo: Det, vi glemmer, gemmer vi i hjertet. Odense: Mellemgaard; 2019.

122 Bass A. Side effects – a prosecutor, a whistleblower, and a bestselling antidepressant on trial. Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books, 2008.

123 Angell M. “The illusions of psychiatry”: an exchange. New York Review of Books 2011; Aug 18.

124 Barbui C, Cipriani A, Brambilla P, et al. ”Wish bias” in antidepressant drug trials? J Clin Psychopharmacol 2004;24:126-30.

125 Hughes S, Cohen D, Jaggi R. Differences in reporting serious adverse events in industry sponsored clinical trial registries and journal articles on antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2014;4:e005535.

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128 Angell M. The truth about the drug companies: How they deceive us and what to do about it. New York: Random House, 2004.

129 Moynihan R, Cassels A. Selling sickness: How the world’s biggest pharmaceutical companies are turning us all into patients. New York: Nation Books, 2005.

130 Gøtzsche PC, Dinnage O. What have antidepressants been tested for? A systematic review. Int J Risk Saf Med 2020;31:157-63.

131 Petersen M. Our daily meds. New York: Sarah Crichton Books; 2008.

132 Larson JC, Ensrud KE, Reed SD, et al. Efficacy of escitalopram for hot flashes in healthy menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2011;305:267-74.

133 Boyd R. A view from the man in the seat opposite. BMJ 1998;317:410.

134 FDA package insert for Zyprexa (olanzapine). Accessed 5 May 2022.

135 Breggin P. Psychiatric drug withdrawal: A guide for prescribers, therapists, patients and their families. New York: Springer; 2012.

136 Davies J, Read J. A systematic review into the incidence, severity and duration of antidepressant withdrawal effects: Are guidelines evidence-based? Addict Behav 2019;97:111-21.

137 Chan A-W, Hróbjartsson A, Haahr MT, et al. Empirical evidence for selective reporting of outcomes in randomized trials: comparison of protocols to published articles. JAMA 2004;291:2457-65.

138 Gøtzsche PC, Hróbjartsson A, Johansen HK, et al. Constraints on publication rights in industry-initiated clinical trials. JAMA 2006;295:1645-6.

139 Bassler D, Briel M, Montori VM, et al. Stopping randomized trials early for benefit and estimation of treatment effects: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. JAMA 2010;303:1180-7.

140 Gøtzsche PC, Hrobjartsson A, Johansen HK, et al. Ghost authorship in industry-initiated randomised trials. PLoS Med 2007;4:e19.

141 Healy D, Cattell D. Interface between authorship, industry and science in the domain of therapeutics. Br J Psychiatry 2003;183:22-7.

142 Healy D. Shaping the intimate: influences on the experience of everyday nerves. Soc Stud Sci 2004;34/2:219-45.

143 Smith R. Time to assume that health research is fraudulent until proven otherwise? BMJ 2021;July 5.

144 Carlisle JB. False individual patient data and zombie randomised controlled trials submitted to Anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 2021;76:472-9.

145 Roberts I, Ker K, Edwards P, et al. The knowledge system underpinning healthcare is not fit for purpose and must change. BMJ 2015;350:h2463.

146 Gøtzsche PC. The decline and fall of the Cochrane empire. Copenhagen: Institute for Scientific Freedom; 2022. Freely available book.

147 Kirk SA, Gomory T, Cohen D. Mad science: psychiatric coercion, diagnosis and drugs. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers; 2013.

148 Gronfein W. Psychotropic drugs and the origins of deinstitutionalization. Social Problems 1985;32:437-54.

149 Leucht S, Tardy M, Komossa K, et al. Antipsychotic drugs versus placebo for relapse prevention in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2012;379:2063-71.

150 Danborg PB, Gøtzsche PC. Benefits and harms of antipsychotic drugs in drug-naïve patients with psychosis: A systematic review. Int J Risk Saf Med 2019;30:193-201.

151 Wang CH, Li Y, Yang J, et al. A randomized controlled trial of olanzapine improving memory deficits in Han Chinese patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2013;144:129-35.

152 Khin NA, Chen YF, Yang Y, et al. Exploratory analyses of efficacy data from schizophrenia trials in support of new drug applications submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration. J Clin Psychiatry 2012;73:856-64.

153 Francey SM, O’Donoghue B, Nelson B, et al. Psychosocial intervention with or without antipsychotic medication for first episode psychosis: a randomized noninferiority clinical trial. Schizophr Bull Open 2020; Mar 20.

154 Bola J, Kao D, Soydan H, et al. Antipsychotic medication for early episode schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;6:CD006374.

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157 Samara MT, Klupp E, Helfer B, et al. Increasing antipsychotic dose for non response in schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018;5:CD011883.

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159 Breggin PR. Intoxication anosognosia: the spellbinding effect of psychiatric drugs. Ethical Hum Psychol Psychiatry 2006;8:201–15.

160 Moncrieff J, Cohen D, Mason JP. The subjective experience of taking antipsychotic medication: a content analysis of Internet data. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009;120:102-11.

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165 Dold M, Li C, Tardy M, et al. Benzodiazepines for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;11:CD006391.

166 Gøtzsche PC. Psychiatry ignores an elephant in the room. Mad in America 2017; Sept 21.

167 Hegelstad WT, Larsen TK, Auestad B, et al. Long-term follow-up of the TIPS early detection in psychosis study: effects on 10-year outcome. Am J Psychiatry 2012;169:374-80.

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174 Harrow M, Jobe TH, Tong L. Twenty-year effects of antipsychotics in schizophrenia and affective psychotic disorders. Psychol Med 2021;Feb 8:1-11. doi: 10.1017/S0033291720004778.

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178 Pharoah F, Mari J, Rathbone J, et al. Family intervention for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;12:CD000088.

179 Kinoshita Y, Furukawa TA, Kinoshita K, et al. Supported employment for adults with severe mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;9:CD008297.

180 Bighelli I, Rodolico A, García-Mieres et al. Psychosocial and psychological interventions for relapse prevention in schizophrenia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry 2021;8:969-80.

181 Chatterton ML, Stockings E, Berk M, et al. Psychosocial therapies for the adjunctive treatment of bipolar disorder in adults: network meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2017;210:333-341.

182 Dieterich M, Irving CB, Bergman H, et al. Intensive case management for severe mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017;1:CD007906.

183 Duncan E, Best C, Hagen S. Shared decision making interventions for people with mental health conditions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;1:CD007297.

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185 Marshall M, Rathbone J. Early intervention for psychosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;6:CD004718.

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187 Rummel‐Kluge C, Kissling W, Leucht S. Antidepressants for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD005581.

188 Whitehead C, Moss S, Cardno A, et al. Antidepressants for people with both schizophrenia and depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;2:CD002305.

189 Gøtzsche PC. Psychiatry gone astray. Mad in America 2014; Jan 28.

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191 Ilyas S, Moncrieff J. Trends in prescriptions and costs of drugs for mental disorders in England, 1998-2010. Br J Psychiatry 2012;200:393-8.

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