A review of “potential neurobiological ramifications of the popular cognitive enhancers,” in Frontiers of Systems Neuroscience, finds that stimulants reduce performance at higher dosages, and that there is a “potential cost of brain plasticity that is associated with the neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain.”
Urban, K., Gao, W., Performance enhancement at the cost of potential brain plasticity: neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. Online May 13 2014.
Unaware of the consequences, students often use stimulants to boost their academic performance. (Healthline)
Is Ritalin Ruining Your Brain? New Research on ‘Smart Drugs’ Implies Some Dangers (Bustle)
“Smart Drugs” Could Lead to Long-Term Brain Damage (Health Central)