What is Open Dialogue Today?


In the six OpenExcellence/HOPENDialogue/MIA Town Hall discussions about Open Dialogue we (Louisa Putnam and myself) have hosted so far, as well as in the many Open Dialogue trainings and even conferences in which we have participated, the most common question during and even after has been “But what IS Open Dialogue?” There are a range of possible answers — the crisis response system in Tornio, Finland; a system that follows a set of elements and principles drawn from Tornio’s example, a practice that can be realized by any clinical team, a philosophy that can be drawn from by any clinician or even non-professional, or simply a way of living.

It may be, however, that the best answer to the question is simply that Open Dialogue is… an ongoing conversation. We have sought in these Town Halls to provide an experience of how an “Open Dialogue” dialogue feels different; where most dialogues — especially in the media — try to fill the air time, we opt to leave space for new thoughts and feelings to arise, and time to reflect on those that have arisen. As important is the time that this allows for viewers of the discussion to chat among themselves and offer their reflections and questions to the panel. At the very beginning of the Covid era, this provided a welcome change and respite to many who were seeking connection and solace.

In the next Town Hall we will focus more explicitly on trying to answer the question of what “Open Dialogue” is… or perhaps on what it is becoming.

The project eventually named “Open Dialogue” began as an experiment in responding better to mental health crisis in Tornio, in Finland’s Western Lapland. Finland’s hospitals in the mid-1980s were full, municipal expenses were strained, and yet Finland had the highest rate of schizophrenia in Europe. The drug-centered standard of care was not working. Finland encouraged its seven regional mental health crisis systems to explore alternatives.

Tornio’s clinicians drew from family-focused approaches that had succeeded with severe mental health crises, but had been eclipsed in the 1980s by the “promise” of new “wonder” drugs. Yrjô Alanen’s Need-Adapted Treatment, Tom Anderson’s Reflecting Team practice, Milan Systemic Family Therapy, California’s Mental Research Institute, and Harlene Anderson and Harry Goolishian’s Collaborative Psychotherapy were just some of the traditions Open Dialogue collaboratively wove together in developing its approach.

The approach began with a shift from focusing on a crisis in an individual to focusing on a crisis in a social network. This approach does not negate that there may be a problem within an individual, however; Open Dialogue’s “network” orientation proceeds from the idea that being human — both its miraculous strengths and frailties — is a product of how individuals interact with their social networks. Perhaps the Tornio clinicians’ most significant discovery was that when they stopped trying to “fix” a “problem” and instead focused on making safe spaces for dialogue, social networks rediscovered their ability to heal themselves and crises that had previously become chronic were instead resolved.

Tornio’s clinicians realized that crises that previously had gone on long enough to meet chronicity criteria for a schizophrenia diagnosis no longer did. Patients were not immediately medicated, instead there was a six-week period to give the new dialogical approach a chance to work. At least 60% of patients, it was found, never took medication and thus, in addition to finding the psychosocial roots of their crises, never suffered medications’ negative effects. The long-term outcomes of those who eventually did take medication, on the other hand, did not suffer from the delay, and only 20% remained on medication long-term.

New diagnoses fell, and soon the Tornio catchment area had the lowest rate of schizophrenia diagnosis in Europe. Five years after first episodes of psychosis, 82% of patients had no residual psychotic symptoms, 86% were working or in school, and only 14% were on disability. Only 29% had used neuroleptic medication at any time, and only 17% continued to use them. (Seikkula 2006) There are indications of a reduction in the need for mental health services, higher rates of employment, and long-term cost savings. (Aaltonen 2011) The clinicians of Keropudas realized that their new approach now needed a name.

Now, people around the world are interested in finding out what “Open Dialogue” is. Many have sought to emulate, if not replicate, Open Dialogue in their own communities. It may be, however, that a safe and healing dialogue requires that all the relevant voices are present and participating in order to find a way through madness. Arguably, looking to another time and place for approval, as respectable and respected as Open Dialogue may be, is incongruous with the goal of nurturing the healing potential within social networks.

It may be that introducing a dialogical response to crisis requires the same long, careful process of earning trust in a community that Open Dialogue underwent. Where patients have experienced decades of being hurt — and not heard — in the name of treatment, it is reasonable to be tentative to speak at all. A healing dialogue must start, then, with all the relevant voices and authority being present; not imposed from another time and place.

It is further possible that many replication efforts, being outside of the mainstream, have been hobbled by a lack of local authority and resources needed to make and keep people safe. “Open Dialogue” can seem like wishful thinking and end in disappointment or worse when it both lacks power and is perceived with skepticism. In such situations, some crises will inevitably have no alternative but to turn to the mainstream system for help, suffering the indignity of seeming to have been “wrong” from the start.

Does making a safe space for “Open Dialogue” require all of the elements and principles, and the authority of being a community’s dominant — or only — standard of care? Or can (and should) Open Dialogue’s elements, principles, and its own sources of inspiration be woven together to create something new in its name?

“Open Dialogue” might also be understood as a philosophy; an understanding of being human among human beings, that can inform both our work and our lives. From my attention to Open Dialogue I have come to see people who have become strident, or bizarre, or silent, as people who are trying to understand things that others may have had the luxury or the complacence to accept as they are. Those perceived as mad are often trying to communicate when speech has fallen short, or failed, or resulted in harm.

In Western Lapland, up to 10% of the population might come into contact with the Open Dialogue process in a given year through participation in network meetings. (Pavlovic 2016) As a result, many crises that in other cultures may have led to a psychiatric referral are instead handled by school counselors who have learned that network meeting may be sufficient — and in most cases is what would happen anyway.

Perhaps Open Dialogue could be understood, as well, as a social change model, in which distressed networks are reminded that “mental health” is not an individual problem but part of a community’s health. “Open Dialogue” represents a shift from the goal of finding a correct “answers” to a focus on including all voices. It may be that acting from this value opens up a range of possible “solutions” that looking for quick fixes never can. Madness itself, in this philosophy, might be seen as a product of a futile search for certainty in the uncertain world of human beings; “Open Dialogue” reminds us that polyphony is not an obstacle to solution; it is essential to human life.

If true, its impact goes far beyond the clinical settings in which “Open Dialogue” establishes a toehold. Every training, every personal and professional interaction that draws inspiration from Open Dialogue’s example in Lapland is a reminder of fundamental interconnectedness and capacity to heal each other, even in the most seemingly extreme states.

In the age of Covid, when our social, professional and economic structures are re-forming, as time zones and geography are almost moot in the world of Zoom, the opportunity and need for “Open Dialogue” is even more apparent. Many aspects of Open Dialogue that have previously been challenging are become self-evident in times of crisis; immediate response, flexibility, equality & polyphony, tolerating uncertainty, and most importantly our responsibility to each other become more evident with each day’s headlines.

One example out of the many initiatives and trainings inspired by Open Dialogue has evolved from its interaction with the many people who have felt unmet by contemporary psychiatric practice — and in many cases hurt — when they have turned to it for help. “Peer-supported Open Dialogue” (POD) incorporates those voices as a necessary part of the dialogue, when it is understood that even “psychosis” can be a result of strains and tears in the social fabric. If OD seeks to shift the focus from a primarily medical focus on human distress to a relational (or “dialogical”) one, POD may be a necessary corrective to an historical authoritarian streak in medical training.

Conferences, trainings, and other gatherings are often noted for a predominance of white, credentialed, privileged faces. However, as Open Dialogue trainings spring up around the world, Open Dialogue is evolving to meet the challenge of fostering an inclusive, global, “open” dialogue.

Please join us Friday, October 23 for our ongoing conversation on what Open Dialogue is — or might be.

Our panel will include Jaakko Seikkula, a member of the team that created Open Dialogue in Tornio, Dr. Tamaki Saito, who introduced Open Dialogue to Japan, POD trainer Ronda Speight of New York, Psychologist Olga Runciman of Denmark, and Dr. Sandra Steingard, who spearheaded the “Collaborative Network Approach” in Vermont, which drew largely on Open Dialogue’s elements and principles. We will also have a reflecting panel that includes Mia Kurtti, a nurse and Open Dialogue trainer on Tornio’s team, Paul Ekwuruke, a mental health nurse and Open Dialogue trainee in the UK, POD trainer Cathy Thorley of the U.K., and psychiatrist and Open Dialogue trainer Yuichi Oi of Japan.

Click here to join OpenExcellence, HOPENDialogue, and Mad in Americas ongoing Town Hall conversation about what Open Dialogue is — and is becoming — today.


Mad in America hosts blogs by a diverse group of writers. These posts are designed to serve as a public forum for a discussion—broadly speaking—of psychiatry and its treatments. The opinions expressed are the writers’ own.


Mad in America has made some changes to the commenting process. You no longer need to login or create an account on our site to comment. The only information needed is your name, email and comment text. Comments made with an account prior to this change will remain visible on the site.

Previous articleSexual Minorities Over-Diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder
Next articleHas the Drug-Based Approach to ‘Mental Illness’ Failed?
Kermit Cole
Kermit Cole, MFT, founding editor of Mad in America, works in Santa Fe, New Mexico as a couples and family therapist. Inspired by Open Dialogue, he works as part of a team and consults with couples and families that have members identified as patients. His work in residential treatment — largely with severely traumatized and/or "psychotic" clients — led to an appreciation of the power and beauty of systemic philosophy and practice, as the alternative to the prevailing focus on individual pathology. A former film-maker, he has undergraduate and master's degrees in psychology from Harvard University, as well as an MFT degree from the Council for Relationships in Philadelphia. He is a doctoral candidate with the Taos Institute and the Free University of Brussels. You can reach him at [email protected].


  1. “It is further possible that many replication efforts, being outside of the mainstream, have been hobbled by a lack of local authority and resources needed to make and keep people safe. “Open Dialogue” can seem like wishful thinking and end in disappointment or worse when it both lacks power and is perceived with skepticism. In such situations, some crises will inevitably have no alternative but to turn to the mainstream system for help, suffering the indignity of seeming to have been “wrong” from the start.”

    Hi Kermit. Great article by the way, so thanks for your ongoing commitment.

    As with anything, it is important how we choose people who will be present for dialogue. And of course non mainstream efforts are watched and judged and there are many waiting to see something or someone fall on their face.
    OD takes time, space, patience and for those who think something has to resolve itself in X amount of time, then it will be disappointment. And can indeed appear to have failed. One does not give up or give in. It has been proven to be beneficial, much more so than anything psychiatric.

    People tried OD and had success. Anything new can be completely distorted, often and especially by those who want to control it, or see another form of income, despite good intentions, it can quickly not be helpful. The original reason why it was helpful was not for “income” or “jobs”, it was simply borne out of the mainstream failures and their causing so much disability and harm.

    I am really thankful that you devote your time and energy and interest in OD.

    Report comment

  2. I never really got to sample the “new wonder drugs” because by the time these drugs came to the market I had cut mysdlf down to miniscule non intrusive doses of the really old drugs, and that was good enough for me.

    Then the old drugs were removed and I did try miniscule doses of the new drugs.

    Ultimately my GPs tried to make out I must be severely unwell mentally because I was prepared to consume very small doses of these new drugs, so I stopped taking the new drugs, but when I did I also discovered that they had no psychiatric effect whatsoever, at the level I had consumed them.

    I wondered why my UK GP s were so keen to attempt to discredit me – but as it happens I can see issues in my history that would provide reasons for their behaviour.

    Report comment

  3. Kermit,
    since Open Dialogue is about a collaboration between therapists, family and the person in distress, it would be nice to see the other two legs of that equation brought into these town meetings and not ONLY the experts. I wish we could hear from the family and how their needs were validated, but also how they learned to be better healing companions for the one in distress. And it would be good to hear from the one in distress and how they viewed his/her interaction with family and how it propelled the healing process.

    I would also love to see a vision laid out to expand Open Dialogue. There is nothing here in Ohio. When I contact some of the groups you have listed, I’m just ignored because I’m a nobody, sigh. How do we get this available on a larger scale? Why not look into a program to empower families? There are lots of ‘peer programs’ out there, but I have yet to find one that teaches families how to travel with the one in distress and do the kinds of things I had to learn to help my wife, like walk her thru ALL the extreme states she experienced so that she actually healed and not just ‘coped’, like how to implement the attachment concepts of safe haven, affect regulation and proximity maintenance that were so critical to walk my wife thru the worst things she experienced, like how to navigate power dynamics, like how to weigh the needs of various people in the relationship when there simply is NO way that everyone can get what they need, like how to deal with the stress brought on by extreme states and remove the fear of the unknown, like how bringing our adult son into the healing journey added a dimension to her healing that I could NEVER have replicated on my own…and so much more….

    I’ve got so many thoughts and questions, and sadly, I probably won’t be able to participate in this even though I signed up for it because it’s our first day of vacation.
    Good to see you back here.

    Report comment

    • Sam, it’s almost 3 years since you wrote your comment I had OD therapy in the early days here in the UK (2016 – 2018) which helped me a great deal to begin processing a very dysfunctional and disconnected childhood. My dad’s mental illness (undiagnosed, possibly bipolar, although I hate labels!) and then my younger brother’s drug addiction which began at 11 when we moved to apartheid era South Africa: horrific to a liberal family. My Brit dad could be quite racist so he was happier. My Norwegian mother hated it…..

      Re. OD, my half-sister and a dear Ethiopian priest and friend were part of my network meetings. They only came once. It was good for them to see me exposed and raw, as I’d run on adrenaline and booze (since 16) for 44 years. (I began OD a year after I quit drinking.) My half sister and I were able to have a very honest conversation about our father, which was intensely healing. My Ethiopian friend revealed how very healthy his family had been and it made me feel sad at my birth family’s dysfunction.

      As a Third Culture Kid with virtually no contact with our wider paternal/maternal families, it was such a lonely existence, I can’t express it. But I’ve had prophetic dreams since I was a kid, all of which subsequently came true, and I learnt to trust my soul, rather than what people around me said. It’s why I avoided my father and younger brother’s paranoid schizophrenia. Medication wouldn’t cure me. I was also able (not sure how) to slow down the trauma responses and ask it questions. Breathing and yoga, I think, and learning to find really authentic people to be friends with and to be my honest and direct self. I hate fakery! I find Africans and Caribbean people far more honest than whites, who tend to be very status obsessed. We have a lot of fun together!

      I now am a member of three tribes which link to my childhood: Third Culture Kids, who are pretty active on Facebook; the Quakers – who embody Open Dialogue principles in everything they do, btw and the addiction recovery community. Most of us have deep seated trauma to accept and heal. All are welcome in my world: we are messy, vulnerable human beings. Where we are most vulnerable is also where we are most whole.

      I salute your love and compassion for your wife. You are extraordinary. OD training should be opened up to all and join with groups with similar principles. I loved having a diverse group of therapists, including Dr. Russell Razzaque, who brought OD to the UK, along with Val Jackson.

      Report comment

  4. I think Open Dialogue is a way of running a meeting. It was developed by mental health practitioners but the principles are found elsewhere. Let’s free it from it’s psychiatric bounds. If school counsellors can do it so can others. If someone is distressed don’t call services, call a meeting and find some facilitators.

    Report comment

    • You know John,
      I have followed OD and I have come to understand that there is no room
      for psychiatry.
      Can a psychiatrist be trained? Indeed. His occupation is proof that he can be. And we have seen the results of “training” in the wrong hands/head.

      This would only be a good tool in the hands of those who never bought into the medical model, not trained out of desperation, or of the realization of folly that was psychiatry.
      Or worse, as an add on.

      Report comment