Meaning in Life Linked With Health, Cognitive Functioning

A new study associates the presence of meaning in life with well-being and cognitive functioning in an adult population.

Jessica Janze
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A new study, published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, investigates the relationship between meaning in life with age, well-being, and cognitive functioning. The researchers differentiated between two opposites: the presence of meaning, and the search for meaning. The presence of meaning was correlated with better health outcomes, and the search for meaning was correlated with worse health in adult populations across the lifespan.

Unfortunately, because this was a cross-sectional, correlational study, it’s difficult to know whether the experience of meaning somehow causes better health, whether better health makes one feel that life is more meaningful, or whether a third variable, such as experiences of poverty or racism, might influence both health and sense of meaning.

“Over the last 3 decades, meaning in life has emerged as an important focus of study in medical research, especially in the context of the aging population. A body of literature on this subject shows that individuals who perceive their lives to be more meaningful have better outcomes across a wide variety of psychological and physical measures of health and well-being,” write researchers led by Awais Aftab, physician and researcher at the University of California San Diego.

from behind, grandmother sits with two children overlooking a lake
Photo by Irudayam (Flickr Creative Commons)

Research has suggested that a strong level of purpose or meaning in one’s life is related to lower rates of mortality, protection from adverse effects of social media, lower levels of impulsivity, and better aging.

“Many think about the meaning and purpose in life from a philosophical perspective, but meaning in life is associated with better health, wellness and perhaps longevity,” said senior author Dilip V. Jeste, MD, senior associate dean for the Center of Healthy Aging in a press release about the study. “Those with meaning in life are happier and healthier than those without it.”

In the current study, Aftab and colleagues correlated presence of meaning and search for meaning with age, well-being, and cognitive functioning. The cross-sectional study utilized data from 1,042 adults in the Successful Aging Evaluation (SAGE), a community-dwelling sample of randomly selected individuals from San Diego County, California.

The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), a popular self-report instrument used to measure meaning in life, conceptualizes meaning in two dimensions: having a meaning in life (or the presence of meaning) and searching for a meaning in life. “Presence refers to the perception that one’s life is meaningful. Search refers to an active pursuit of meaning in one’s life,” write Aftab and colleagues.

Researchers used the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) to measure physical and mental well-being. Cognitive status was obtained by a structured 25-minute phone interview. Trained researchers administrated a modified version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m), a screening instrument for cognitive impairment with score ranging from 0–50, with higher scores indicating better cognitive performance.

Results of significant correlations between variables demonstrated inverted U-shaped curves for presence and search for meaning when compared to age. “Presence exhibited an inverted U-shaped curve and Search showed a U-shaped curve.”

“This inverse relationship between Presence and Search for meaning in life with reference to age makes intuitive sense. If a person lives with a sense of purpose and meaning, s/he does not need to be engaged in searching for additional meaning. Conversely, if a person feels a void of meaning in life, s/he would want to actively seek purpose,” write Aftab and colleagues.

Better mental well-being and cognitive functioning were associated with experiencing more presence of meaning in life. Counter to this, those with lower well-being and cognitive functioning scores tended to search for meaning more.

“People with low presence of meaning in their lives and/or those with high search for meaning may possibly be at higher risk of poor physical, mental, and cognitive outcomes, and assessment of meaning in life could be a way of identifying vulnerable populations. High levels of search for meaning may be an indication that the individual is experiencing difficulties adjusting with declining functioning, and one can hypothesize that interventions targeting such individuals may help them cope with their stressors and allow for flourishing with a sense of purpose.”

The authors caution that “this was a cross-sectional analysis, so inference of causality cannot be drawn.” In the press release, however, they actively use reverse causality to explain the difference between finding the presence of meaning and no longer needing to search for meaning. They cite factors such as getting married, having a family, and having a stable career as leading to the presence of meaning. They also explain the tendency for older adults to begin to search for meaning again as something driven by the loss of friends, retirement, and loss of good health. In this case, the researchers seem to think that loss of health and well-being might come first, leading to people losing a sense of meaning.

That line of thinking makes sense—people who experience a decline of health, the loss of friends/spouses, and start to lose cognitive ability might lose a sense of meaning in their life. It’s unclear how the researchers intend to intervene to “modify” sense of meaning, and how that would impact age-related declining health and loss of cognitive ability.

Aftab concludes, however, that “the medical field is beginning to recognize that meaning in life is a clinically relevant and potentially modifiable factor, which can be targeted to enhance the well-being and functioning of patients. We anticipate that our findings will serve as building blocks for the development of new interventions for patients searching for purpose.”

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Aftab A, Lee EE, Klaus F, et al. Meaning in life and its relationship with physical, mental, and cognitive functioning: a study of 1,042 community-dwelling adults across the lifespan. J Clin Psychiatry. 2020;81(1):19m13064. (Abstract)

5 COMMENTS

  1. “the medical field is beginning to recognize that meaning in life is a clinically relevant and potentially modifiable factor, which can be targeted to enhance the well-being and functioning of patients.” But the medical field doesn’t have the time, or bother to get to know patients well enough to garner insight into whether or not a person has meaning in their life. And they want to poison those of us, who do have meaning in our lives. Like for example, us stay at home moms, active volunteers, who are married, have a family, and love working on our art portfolio.

    And who determines what “meaning in life” is appropriate? Now the psychologists are so terrified of my “too truthful” artwork, which visually documents the 14 different psychiatric attempted murders of me, all via anticholinergic toxidrome poisonings. That a psychologist recently tried to steal all profits from my work, my work, my family’s money, and take control of my story, accountants and lawyers. I said no thank you, while pointing out the criminal nature of his BS “art manager” contract.

    Those of us who stand against the psychiatric, psychological, and medical industries’ systemic, mass murder of millions, also have “meaning in life.”

    https://www.naturalnews.com/049860_psych_drugs_medical_holocaust_Big_Pharma.html

    But since the medical field does not want to end their multibillion dollar, scientific fraud based, ongoing medical/psychological/psychiatric drug induced holocaust. The medical community not only, doesn’t consider our concerns to be meaningful, they want to silence and steal from us.

    “We anticipate that our findings will serve as building blocks for the development of new interventions for patients searching for purpose.” I’m quite certain this is unnecessary, since there already is too much medicalization of human life. And, just an FYI, our material world only believing, medical community also completely dismisses all potential Spiritual meaning or purpose one might have in life.

    New “interventions for patients searching for purpose” would merely be an increase in the medicalization of human life. Our “mental health” workers would be wiser if they learned to live and let live, instead.

  2. Consider that mainstream psychiatry is about destroying the health and cognitive function of those it “helps.” Psychiatry fills the human heart with existential angst and self loathing.

    Psychiatry prevented me–and countless others–from marriage, a career, family, or friendships with any but a few other outcasts. 🙁

    Is it any wonder so many of those with psychiatric labels kill themselves?

  3. Geeezzz! “Meaning in life” might be what drives people into the helping profession—the predominant reason, really! Or, better said, it would be the “lack of life meaning“ that makes people study psychology and the like.

    Hmmmm. I kind of feel these researchers need only ask themselves about the meaning in life!

  4. I bet there is a meaning pill.

    This article like every other article tells unsuspecting people that there exists something called “meaning”, and lack of it is called “depression” (although they do not mention it)
    As they say, it is in searching for meaning that can contribute to “poor health”, but by suggesting it, we might question whether we are fulfilled or have “meaning”.
    Subliminal messages work wonders.

    During various points in one’s life, many will come to a point of questioning not just meaning, but the “point” of it all. Especially in old age, or ill health. After all, if there is no “end point” to suffering, then why do so?
    Inherent it is to want to live, not just that but to feel part of life, to enjoy. Poor health and other stuff can result in taking stock of how much is in the bank.
    And any assessments made by the holder of the account are conclusions arrived at by weighing pros and cons.

    Ultimately, we decide. Yet in fact there is no such thing as making decisions or meaning without influence.
    One could talk about “meaning” with no end in sight and in fact no endpoint.
    All talk about anything that is part of thought processes and experiences is a further purpose for psychiatry’s own meaning.
    The purpose is to dissect philosophical questions into psychiatric ones and turn philosophy 101 into a business. Or support existing business.
    “meaning” is now owned by three disciplines, with one cashing in on it.

  5. Seemingly part of a process of reinventing the wheel about everything, from biological perspective. An embarrassing effort revealing deep submission to some dogma and indicative of a lack of education in humanities of the category of people speculating such concepts / approaches.

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