On MIA Radio this week, MIA’s Peter Simons interviewed David Cohen, PhD, a social worker, professor of social welfare, and Associate Dean for Research at the Luskin School of Public Affairs of the University of California, Los Angeles. He discussed his path to becoming a researcher focused on mental health, coercive practices, and discontinuation from psychiatric drugs.
He studies the social construction of psychoactive drug effects, the union of law and psychiatry within a criminalization/medicalization system and envisions alternatives to the current mental health industrial complex and the medicalization of everyday life. He has also taught in Canada and France, and for over 20 years held a private practice to help people withdraw from psychiatric drugs.
He is the author of over 100 book chapters and articles. His first book, published in 1990, was Challenging the Therapeutic State: Critical Perspectives on Psychiatry and the Mental Health System. His latest book, published in 2013, with colleagues, Stuart Kirk, and Tomi Gomory is Mad Science: Psychiatric Coercion, Diagnosis and Drugs.
What follows is a transcript of the interview, edited for clarity.
PS: Hi David, and welcome.
DC: Thank you, Peter, for having me.
PS: Thank you for being here. First, I would like to ask about your background. How did you become interested in the mental health field? I know that you do have a social work background — what was your experience, in the beginning, working with people?
DC: I started out as a social worker in late 1975 in Montreal, Canada, and about nine years later in 1984, I entered a PhD program in social welfare at Berkeley. In that intervening time, I was a caseworker and a community organizer in a family counseling agency, in a juvenile court, in a civil liberties association, and in a community health center.
In each of those places, I witnessed firsthand how psychiatry was used to constrain misbehavior. This was pre-DSM III, so I can’t really say what the mental health field was about because even that expression: “mental health field” wasn’t that popular. But at that time there was a lot of ferment about different ways of counseling. There were experiments in family therapy, communication theory, systems thinking. There was a lot of activity and a lot of different ways people were thinking about how to help people, and I felt part of that. I was steeped into these kinds of trainings with different ideas.
In my very first job I met with and worked with people that had diagnoses of schizophrenia and were taking prescribed drugs—I didn’t even know what they were—but because of my own experiences with psychedelics, I asked these people pretty blunt, simple questions about what they were going through.
They were very happy to educate me, and I understood that they felt the drugs made them feel different and the drugs made them look different to other people. I thought there was something there that was interesting and I was also concerned because some of them expressed that they were forced to take the drugs or felt forced to take the drugs. That bothered me.
I thought, “This is a deep experience to take drugs. This can be very upsetting to force someone to do that.” All of this raised dozens of questions for me and helped my nascent understanding of the very complex relationships that people established with drugs. I was also fortunate to have a really wise, no-nonsense, psychoanalytically trained supervisor.
Her name was Sylvia Benjamin, and she was wonderful. She encouraged any questions I had. She didn’t seem to mind if I didn’t like her explanations for things. She would say, don’t you think this person needs a doctor? And I’d say, no, I think that’s the last thing they need. They need a vacation, they need money in their pocket, they need time off. So she encouraged me to explore elsewhere, and that was at the very first job that I had in this field.
I was also reading these constructivist authors: Francisco Varela was one, Paul Watzlawick was another, Virginia Satir, people like that. That was my beginning experience in this field.
PS: I can see how that gives you a through-line of starting to be critical of the prevailing medical model, even as that was just starting to be the way that people looked at things in the 80s?
DC: Yeah… to be critical of the medical model, I have to say that started earlier. Without being able to put my finger on it, but early on in life because of where I was brought up, because of what I read—I read adventure stories, I read complex things. I was quite familiar, as a child, with the Bible. I was reading it as an adventure; it was full of characters. So I already was getting a sense of interpreting family issues intergenerationally.
I was also brought up as a member of a fairly oppressed minority in a far-away land. Growing up in a very intensely multicultural environment, I had a sense early on that the same behavior could mean quite different things to different people depending on where they were standing.
At an early age, I got a sense that life was quite complex and intricate socially. Then, as a budding social worker, I was observing psychiatrists at work. I was there when they were conducting interviews; I was reading the reports they drafted, I was seeing how they were talking to judges in court hearings, and how they were talking to families. It kind of appeared stale to me. It didn’t ring true, and I could see no connection to medicine. I mean some of the buildings were the same, some of the language was the same, but I saw no other connection. And so I thought, already at that time in my early twenties, this needs debunking. Then I fell into a book by Thomas Szasz called Ceremonial Chemistry. I think it was 1977 when I first read that book.
That book raised a lot of questions and fired me up. Szasz was way ahead of his time, putting all psychoactive drugs, licit and illicit, in the same ecological niche. I was beginning to draw dots, make links to the effects of drugs and the statuses of drugs. Not so much their properties and molecules, but just the way they were treated by different groups at different times. That gave me a sense that maybe that’s why they have the effects we attribute to them. So it opened up a way of thinking that was already nascent, but I that I couldn’t put words to. So that got me critiquing the medical model, I would say. For the next few years, I turned my attention to studying drugs in a social, anthropological, historical manner.
PS: I’m wondering how you go from the reading of those critiques and Thomas Szasz to being able to write your first book in 1990, Challenging the Therapeutic State. What led up to that?
DC: That was an edited anthology, so I went to every person that I thought was doing something quite critical, because, at that time in the late eighties, I thought we were just drowning in this medical model. I thought, wait a minute, I’m hearing other sounds. But before that, more importantly, I started to get interested in antipsychotic drugs. And that was, as a social worker, let’s say 1980. I began to be interested because schizophrenia was for me just the latest word that we were giving to madness, and psychiatry was claiming to own the resolution of that problem.
They owned schizophrenia, and they owned the response to it, and their leading response was antipsychotic drugs. What exactly was it about these drugs that made most of the writings I was reading quite laudatory and praiseworthy about the drugs? They were talking about it as if it was penicillin and I wanted to know what’s there because that did not quite jive with some of the subjective voices I was hearing from people taking them. So I wanted to know what was going on there.
I was fortunate to live very close to the McGill University Medical Library—an extraordinary place. I just spent countless hours there, reading everything I could on the antipsychotics and the neuroleptics. I wrote up my observations, and then I wrote a paper—I think it was 1983—and I sent it off to the Journal of Mind and Behavior, and the editor and the other reviewers liked it. I think it was published in 1986, and I was already then a PhD student.
By then I had written other papers. The first paper I wrote was a critique of involuntary commitment. I think that was published in 1978. I was wondering about why social workers are enlisted in collaborating in forced psychiatric interventions. I just didn’t understand that, so I started from first principles, such as what are we doing, what is that for, what justifies it?
So I was aware, but I got into focusing on the antipsychotics, and then I went to do my PhD, specifically to study with professor Steven Segal, who was following up a large cohort of people that he had first interviewed in the early seventies when they were being deinstitutionalized from psychiatric institutions.
I went to study the effect of antipsychotics on their social integration, which was a hip term at the time. So I bored ever more deeply into the topic of the antipsychotics from historical perspectives, pharmacological perspectives, anthropological, economic perspectives, power perspectives, epidemiology. That was my PhD.
Then I got an academic job. In a stay in France in the mid-1990s, I wrote a number of essays on antipsychotics, including one which was called “A Critique of the Use of Neuroleptic Drugs in Psychiatry.” That was published in a well-known book at the time called From Placebo to Panacea, which came out, I think, in 1996. That put together all I had been reading, interviewing about, and getting from primary sources in different countries. It was about the antipsychotics and what they were actually producing as we could document rather than just as people were saying they’re doing.
Even before that, in the late eighties, I was already getting involved with survivor groups in Quebec. That led to coauthoring the French language book A Critical Handbook of Psychiatric Drugs, in 1995. That was one of the first books that really focused on coming off of psychiatric drugs. There was a whole chapter on withdrawal effects and how to come off drugs.
That’s why Peter Breggin and I, in 1999, were able to write Your Drug May Be Your Problem. So I had all this background too; he had his background with critiques of neuroleptics already. That’s why we focused on coming off drugs and withdrawal, which I thought was really the issue of the day at the time.
That put together a number of influences and things I did that got me ready to be doing the work that I continue to do.
PS: Yeah, it really puts into perspective that you were working on this for so many years. Then to come out with several books that really critically look at the idea of how these drugs are affecting us and what it means to come off of them and what happens when you try to discontinue them. It’s fascinating to me that these books were out there. You wrote these books in the ’90s, the one with Peter Breggin in 1999, and yet it seems that, somehow, this never made its way into our culture. Hey, maybe people want to get off these drugs. Hey, what’s going to happen when that does happen?
DC: Well, eventually it made its way. I think you had asked me a question about, “Why do you think your critique didn’t punch a bigger hole in the prevailing wisdom?” You had sent me that question, and I thought about that.
It’s obvious to me that it couldn’t punch a hole, by definition, because the prevailing wisdom was not then, and is not now, based on science. Science is a system to rigorously test your hypotheses and reject them if they fail continuously to pass the test. But it’s not based on science. It’s based on other things that we can explore. It’s based on the acceptance of what psychiatry does for people.
The system is not based on critical thinking. So the critique, I don’t think would punch a hole in the prevailing wisdom. Certainly not in the short term.
Focused critiques of psychiatry, by definition, don’t punch holes. Instead, they get recycled incognito within psychiatry. It’s like a digestion process. Psychiatry feeds on critiques. It ignores them, first of all. It then incorporates them into its own practice and passes them off as the natural evolution of the discipline but doesn’t give any credit to who does it and never provides an accounting for why the critique was not accepted when it was first voiced.
But my critique, I dare say, was prescient. It really announced the whole floundering of the “evidence-based” (quote-unquote) giving of neuroleptics. Then the CATIE studies, in the mid-2000s, publicized widely that the whole thing was floundering. The evidence base just was not there, and I was announcing that very specifically in my critique a decade earlier.
I also think it really helped to reinforce both early critiques, like those by Peter Breggin, for example, and a handful of neurologists, and the later critiques by David Healy, Bob Whitaker, and Joanna Moncrieff. All of us somehow reinforced each other. It was part of mounting this opposition, which is now pretty conventional thinking in critical psychiatric circles. I think it emphasized the view of drug effects as global states that completely defy reification into therapeutic effects and side effects.
That’s what my critique emphasizes: that at every step of the way we’re dealing with quite global effects that if you have the power you’re going to say that this is a therapeutic effect, but this one is an unfortunate side effect, when from my perspective they all look to be affecting the person and the decision to say this is therapeutic and this is adverse or side is a political decision.
PS: Could you give an example of how, specifically, a drug might have effects that are called therapeutic and called side effects?
DC: The antipsychotics are a good example; the stimulants too. During an acute crisis, anything that’s going to slow a person down will look to those around a person, and the family or the physician, as if it’s calming them. The person would probably feel them differently, but it would look that way. And they’d say, “There, that’s the therapeutic effect of the drug. Look, it’s quieting them. They’re not voicing their delusion. The drug’s working.”
Then two or three months later, sustaining that effect is turning the person into a vegetable. At that moment we start saying, “Oh my God, look, that’s akinesia, that’s parkinsonism.” So the same effect in one situation will be desirable, but over time, that same effect is no longer desirable because the person can’t function. So that’s a simple example which I think is obvious.
The same thing with akathisia, which is that drug-induced hyperactivity and preoccupation with your discomfort, which makes you half the time unable to address anything else going on outside of you. You are completely obsessed with what is happening to you; you’re pacing back and forth; you want to jump out of yourself. That itself, in certain situations, is looked at as if it’s therapeutic. In other words, because the person is unable to do anything else, they’re contained that way. Then, after a little while, when they’re back home, and they’re in that state, everyone is panicking and asking what’s happening to them. This is also the same effect being looked at differently.
This is the notion of the effect either at different times in the process or from different eyes, being defined quite differently though it is the same action of the drug. That illustrates that the effects don’t come packaged in molecules. They are really interpreted according to the needs of the participants in the situation.
The one who has the most power will impose their definition of what is happening. I see that happening with a lot of drugs, especially drugs that have quick effects like stimulants or even benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines: it’s good when you’re trying to go to sleep, but when you’re getting up in the middle of the night, if you’re losing your balance, then it’s considered an adverse effect. But it’s the same thing happening to you.
PS: There’s something in what you said about the authority of the psychiatric establishment to make those definitions. Something about “the person who has the most power gets to define what is a therapeutic effect,” and often that’s not the person who’s taking the drug.
DC: Yeah. And even when I would look for definitions of “side effects” in the literature, it was always defined as something that was unintended. Well, unintended, okay, fine—by whom? Who intends, who does not intend? So, right away, it brings us right back into social relations, interpersonal relations. Something isn’t unintended from nowhere, down from the sky. People have intentions.
PS: I believe you’ve also done some work about forced treatment in psychiatry. How do you think that plays into the sort of authority that psychiatry has?
DC: In the early 1990s, I reviewed hundreds, if not thousands, of decisions in Canada from administrative tribunals that were ruling on whether someone who was committed could have their release. So I obtained all of the written decisions justifying that and just wrapping my head around the tortuous, always circular logic between mental illness, dangerousness, and drug treatment.
It was always this logic that: they’re dangerous because they’re not taking their medications; therefore they’re mentally ill, or they’re mentally ill because they’re dangerous because they’re not taking their medication, or they’re not taking their medication; therefore they’re dangerous, and so that makes them mentally ill. No matter which way you looked, there was no way out.
Also, around that time, I was an advocate, as an independent expert in some of those hearings, I would go on behalf of people who were trying to gain their freedom. So my work has been looking from the outside and being somewhat involved in it.
The authority to coerce is fundamental to psychiatry’s authority in society. First of all, it’s given to every psychiatrist, as a psychiatrist. It’s almost a unique rite of passage. I would bet that if you don’t participate in some coercion and if you’re not observed to participate in coercion, frank coercion, I don’t think you can become a psychiatrist. Now I’ll pronounce that as something that I’m not certain about. But I’m guessing that that’s the case. If it’s not the case in one country, it’s probably the case in another.
I would say that that authority, given to psychiatrists, in my view, is the basis for all of psychiatry’s influence in society, for all its reputation, for all its influence theoretically on the radio, even things that don’t seem connected to commitment. We accept psychiatry’s authority and influence in many other spheres because we give them that authority to intervene involuntarily. That influence, that power, is all the greater because it’s rarely acknowledged by all the rest of us, who depend on that power to control people who bother us in our midst.
That person creates or opens cracks in the fundamental institutions of society: the family, the school, the workplace; that person often lays them bare. Psychiatry is the institution that comes to the rescue—often enthusiastically.
I want to stress that no matter the main political system in a modern society, whether it’s been totalitarian, or communist, or social democrat, or socialist, or neoliberal, or free-wheeling capitalist, psychiatry always enthusiastically serves that system to handle the deviant or to justify how that system is going to handle the deviant. Whether the deviant wants to emigrate out of the country or wants to emigrate out of life, psychiatry is always there, no matter the political system.
Involuntary psychiatric interventions to me are really part of the fabric of social life. They’re embedded in there; they’re a glue. They hold a lot of our society together for better or worse.
PS: I feel like that’s a huge statement, a statement that sort of takes in the entire concept of what is sanity and what is madness.
DC: As I heard myself say, “the person that I call the mad person opens cracks in the fabric of society,” artists do that too. Artists open these cracks up, can provoke us dramatically. Of course, there are differences.
Maybe the person we call mad does it unprompted, does it right inside those institutions themselves. It’s like performance art, squared. It’s right there. It’s right in the family that the crack is open whereas the artist has the luxury to be away from it and to kind of show to us, not right in our face.
PS: From the beginning of what we were talking about, there is a way that giving psychiatry that authority, which is inextricably linked to the society as a whole, also serves to reify psychiatry’s authority over a lot of other things?
DC: Yes. That’s it. That almost exactly my point. Because of that authority we give psychiatry to “handle the deviants” (quote-unquote), we give them a pass over everything else. They get a free pass on their theories.
Psychiatry tries hard to portray itself as medical pioneers, probing synapses, surfing the genome. But there are no results there at all. Despite that, we accept their discourse; it’s almost like we politely nod and accept that yes, you can say that and we don’t ask for the evidence. We don’t say, “But you’ve continually failed to support this hypothesis. You haven’t found the chemical imbalance. You did not find the aberrant gene. In fact, you’re saying it’s ALL of the genes right now.”
We never hold them to account for what has been proposed as the test for their hypothesis. We give them a free pass because we need them to keep the social fabric together. That’s my point.
Authority is based on many things like the knowledge of people, or maybe the wisdom of people, or maybe their example—or their power. The authority that rests on your sheer power, and that to me is the determining one that takes over all the other types of authority, and we give them a free pass on those other authorities.
PS: In the interest of your work that’s somewhat critical of the medical model of psychiatry, and is critical of some of that authority that psychiatry has, like forced treatment—what is the goal that we can have if society is going to give them that pass?
DC: Well, the goal is that we should try to understand that we probably need coercion. I have a hard time imagining a coercion-free society. I think coercion is necessary to maintain social groups as a final measure.
The question is, who should be coercing? As a member of a helping profession, a so-called helping profession, I don’t believe that I should be the one to have that power to coerce. I think that if I have that power to coerce it should be clearly announced; I should be wearing a kind of a uniform that identifies me as a coercer, not a healer.
PS: To make the analogy to a legal system, there are laws that help to keep society together in a particular way, and the population knows those laws, and when they break those laws, then there’s coercion—something needs to happen to ensure that the laws of society are followed. The coercion that’s employed by psychiatry is different from that. The laws aren’t really necessarily clear. When you’re going to be the agents of coercion is also sometimes unclear…
DC: It’s like a shapeshifter. You know, the person is there for you, you have some distress, and you might go see someone, and that’s a story of course that I have heard countless times: “I went to see them for this problem; the next thing I knew, I was locked up in this room by that person.”
That comes from blurring the role of the therapist with the role of the coercer. They’re important functions, but they can’t be in the same person. That leads to a critique of all of the interventions we have that try to blend the juvenile court model, where you’re at once a father and a judge and a helper and the doctor and the probation officer and the babysitter altogether in one. We don’t know what to expect. It becomes arbitrary, and we don’t know why you change roles instantly and you justify it on the basis of some science that I don’t know, or that’s not accessible to me.
PS: I wanted to ask more specifically about some of your papers that we recently covered on Mad in America. In those articles, you make the case that withdrawal symptoms confound a large portion of the studies that are purporting to demonstrate psychiatric drugs’ effectiveness in relapse prevention. I was wondering what this withdrawal confounding factor means for the evidence base that psychiatry promotes for the use of these drugs, both in the short- and long-term?
DC: Many types of studies in psychiatry, both short-term and long-term, use deliberate discontinuation from drugs as a kind of a paradigmatic procedure, a foundational procedure, to reach all sorts of conclusions about how useful patented psychoactive drugs are to people.
So deliberate drug discontinuation, deliberate removal of a drug, is used in all kinds of studies to reach conclusions about how useful it is to remain on drugs. These studies—in the popular mind, and in the professional mind too—they hammer away the message that people with problems need to take drugs and especially need to remain on drugs indefinitely.
The fact is, deliberate drug discontinuation, especially abrupt discontinuation, is absolutely not equivalent to no drug treatment. To use such a procedure and to use it most of the time not transparently, to just kind of hint and not give details as to how you’re using this deliberate drug discontinuation to conclude that no drug treatment is worse than drug treatment… at best it’s disingenuous.
Withdrawal symptoms from taking away drugs overlap with the treated symptoms, the symptoms of your distress that got you on drugs in the first place. So if your aim is to conduct a study to promote a drug, you’re not going to focus on the withdrawal symptoms, you’re going to ignore withdrawal symptoms rather than identify them. You’re going to exploit this lack of consensus in the field, the lack of clear definition of what this strange stuff is that comes out when you’re withdrawing the drug. Well, let’s just call it relapse rather than really dig into it and while not too many people are talking about it, all the better. Let’s just continue to do business as usual in these studies. That’s a problem.
Then the other side of the coin is that on the “clinical” side, the practice side, this neglect, this ignorance of the withdrawal symptoms, leads the therapists to misrepresent to clients that coming off drugs cautiously may have some really good positive consequences. So what I’m trying to say here is that there’s a dark side of withdrawal that’s being exploited in the drug studies, and there’s a positive side of withdrawal that’s being hidden in the clinical world.
So all I can say is big confounds everywhere. Big challenges to the evidence base, as usual. It’s always been like this. This is the business that I’ve been observing for decades. The issue of withdrawal confounding just means that a lot of what passes as the strength of your mental disorder that needs to be contained is actually a function of how drugs are withdrawn from you.
Now, despite what I’ve just said, I don’t want to say that I accept everything that somebody says is a withdrawal effect. I do think there’s a sociology of withdrawal and an anthropology of withdrawal that’s yet to be written. But I am saying that withdrawal is a word that I don’t want to work to also reify and say that because somebody calls something a withdrawal effect of a drug, no matter who they are, whether they’re a user or a prescriber, that I’m going to accept that on faith. I want to see what exactly it is, and what it signifies, what relationship you have with that drug.
So I’m still questioning what withdrawal symptoms are, really. But I do recognize that there is this big black hole, a lack of consensus looking at probable withdrawal effects, and that is screwing up the drug studies and the evidence base. And on the other hand, it denies patients very common, sensible ways to taper their drugs and feel better.
PS: So you’ve just put out a couple of pretty major papers on that subject. Do you feel like the conventional narrative about this is starting to flounder in the public mind?
DC: I think that in line with this notion I have that psychiatry regularly recycles critical ideas and kind of takes them in, the whole issue of drug discontinuation is currently now being staked out as this professional turf issue in some ways.
You know, besides geriatric medicine, psychiatry for decades had practically nothing to say about deprescribing except take your meds. So people are rushing in to fill this space. They see this as some niche they could be filling, and the media is following. But typically the media angle seems to be how do we bolster the medical authority?
The fact is that almost all of the solid practical knowledge about coming off psychiatric drugs comes from completely nonprofessional consumer circles. Almost everything we understand about micro-tapering and going slow that has not been part of any real strong professional knowledge in any discipline I know of.
What that means to me is that I’m not sure if the narrative is really changing about drugs. I think that there are always narratives and counter-narratives that are going on at the same time. We see accelerating the movement to make illicit drugs licit—oh look, ketamine is now approved by the FDA for depression, or they’re doing a clinical trial of psilocybin for example. Everything gets recycled, licit becomes illicit; illicit becomes licit. The categories change, the language changes and then new products come in, and they go through the cycle again.
So it’s hard to tell if the narrative is changing about drugs per se. But is the narrative about psychiatric power, psychiatric influence, is that changing? Possibly. I think that Mad in America is a good example of ordinary enterprising individuals using information technology to change the channels of construction of information and dissemination of information.
We always face changes in how institutions are seen, and psychiatry’s reputation generally is always mixed. I find it’s sometimes the subject of ridicule, or we don’t take it seriously, while at the same time we respect it or we’re in awe of it. These counter-influences are happening simultaneously.
PS: I’m curious about what your hopes for the future of your work are, whether there is any research that’s coming up for you that you wanted to talk about, and how that might play into the overarching goal of criticism of the authority of psychiatry.
DC: I think a lot these days about the power of nature, the power of green space, the power of gardens to calm us, to heal us, to center us, to situate us in our context, and maybe even paradoxically to bring out the best of us as social beings. So I just want “mental health,” if that means anything, to mean that we respect planet Earth, our only home. That, to me, is more important than any of the mental health and psychiatric issues.
The students I see, rarely have they encountered any serious critiques of psychiatry or mental health ideology. They think, you know, “mental health” or “serious mental illness.” They think those are categories of nature. They’ve been steeped into this ideology. I’m glad they’re asking me questions because I’m an educator, and my task is to present my views and then help them to attend to their own thinking so they can challenge their own views.
I’m just concerned that many of the jobs they will go into will expect them to take these categories, these concepts, as categories of nature; they will expect them to not be so challenging. That’s part of the way things go. So I’m not pessimistic. I’m not particularly optimistic. To inverse a famous title of a book by Paul Watzlawick, the situation is serious but not hopeless.
PS: Well, thank you very much. That has been really enlightening.
DC: I hope so.
PS: I really appreciate it.
This idea that force is necessary is pushing me into a corner. If the helping profession and the harming profession are really so much in cahoots, I pretty much have to come out on the side of freedom by opting for the scratching of the mental health profession entirely. Thomas Szasz opposed coercive mental health treatment throughout much of his career. It is very unfortunate that most professionals alive today don’t have the stomach to do the same. I think a stronger position imperative if one doesn’t want to aid and abet the enemies of freedom.
Good point. More people ought to read and understand the works of Thomas Szasz.
Removed for moderation.
“What exactly was it about these drugs that made most of the writings I was reading quite laudatory and praiseworthy about the drugs?” The antipsychotics/neuroleptics can create both the negative and positive symptoms of “schizophrenia,” that’s why the psychiatrists worship them.
But since both NIDS and anticholinergic toxidrome are conveniently missing from the DSM, the psychiatrists pretend to not know this, and always misdiagnose the adverse effects of their drugs, with their “invalid” and “unreliable” DSM disorders.
“As I heard myself say, ‘the person that I call the mad person opens cracks in the fabric of society’ artists do that too. Artists open these cracks up, can provoke us dramatically.” Yes, the “mental health” workers want to control, and even murder, all the “insightful,” “too truthful,” and “prophetic” artists. Especially those of us who they proactively attacked, so they could profiteer off of, and cover up the rape and spiritual abuse of our children, for our highly dysfunctional, pedophile loving, former religions.
“As a member of a helping profession, a so-called helping profession, I don’t believe that I should be the one to have that power to coerce. I think that if I have that power to coerce it should be clearly announced; I should be wearing a kind of a uniform that identifies me as a coercer, not a healer.”
I absolutely agree, those who coerce, under the guise of being a healer, are hypocrites. And these hypocrites have created a multibillion dollar, primarily child abuse covering up, thus pedophile empowering, scientific fraud based “mental health” system that is destroying America and all of western civilization.
Oh, but our psychiatrists believe everyone who has concern about the possible abuse of our child is “mentally ill.” And once the medical evidence of the rape is finally handed over, the psychiatrists believe the best way to help a child who was abused four years prior, thus was well on the way to recovering, is to immediately drug the child. Bye, bye insane, criminal, child abuse covering up psychiatrist.
Dante forewarned society about where the hypocrites will land. And the artists are singing about it. “This is my kingdom come, this is my kingdom come” and “oh, yeah, we’re going down.” A country that allows psychiatric coercion, and a country that is governed by the rule of law, are mutually exclusive concepts.
I believe America should return to being a country that is governed by the rule of law. And we should start convicting the child abusers, rather than allowing the hypocritical psychiatrists to continue turning millions and millions of innocent child abuse survivors into the “mentally ill” with the psychiatric drugs.
Dr. Cohen is one of my heroes. His recent articles about the confounding effects due to the structure of randomized controlled drug trials are brilliant. That the drug companies get to spit out whatever lies they want, but those who criticize them are forced to be scientific and objective is a really lop sided power structure. It is obvious that stopping the drugs abruptly causes withdrawal – surely this was understood by pharma from the beginning. There is a high suicide rate among those who have a ‘drug washout’ before the second limb of the research studies. That Dr. Cohen has taken the time to scientifically debunk the twisted research design is a real step forward.
I am going to try to keep this short. I am under a court order for forced mental health treatment for six years now. After I went in the hospital VOLUNTARILY and was tricked into signing a court order. Last year, I asked my doctor-who is more like a judge of the soul- if I could be a fazed up and moved out of the system? His response, “If you dont like it MOVE!” Mind you I have social workers who visit me 2 a week to watch me take medication and I am little annoyed by their “do-gooder” attitudes and my lack of privacy. I have no say in my treatment nor any control of really anything. This is blunt, but social workers arent the smartest people I have meet and I feel obligated to make them feel valued. I have come to the conclusion that this is just the industry and I am the product. My last doctor visit was me convincing them I didnt need injections, which is basically every visit-they seem to like to push injections. And then they end the visit with the “Are you homicidal?” I have no criminal history of violence and they keep insinuating I am dangerous. Its so insulting. I think I really have to move because they are so up my ass like and ex I cant shake. The meds are all just tranquilizers, even the literature calls them MAJOR TRANQUILIZERS. Honestly, its not gonna change you just have to avoid these people the best you can and not be human around them. They see you simple as a mental patient anything you do or say can and will be used against you. Lastly, the times I have been thrown in the hospital and encountered other patients I really lost hope in any change possible. MANY people LOVE their meds like they love their drugs. They want to be sedated and that is sad. But I learned to keep my mouth shut and keep calm and carry on. It looks like I will have to move just to have some peace mind and be left alone. So sad, because no matter how much good I do in my community mental health is there to remind I am so dangerous. Idiots….the workers and the doctors are just low level surveillance.
Very well stated.
Moving is always a possibility, and one that I would recommend. If you can relocate to another state, the court order you’re under at home can’t touch you. If it could, there are still people who care enough to shelter and protect people from any such threat.
I don’t think this is true for everyone. There are super scapegoats who are harassed wherever they go; and they are not allowed to defend themselves.
Super scapegoats, good one. You think maybe they could find a way out of it some day? Folly, if not offset by wisdom, is simply unbecoming.
I am listening if you have any practical advice.
I remember Will Hall once giving a presentation on the use of camouflage. One of those uses, I imagine, is in not making a target out of oneself. There you go, that’s my practical advice, and given freely.
That is obviously not helpful. I think that this needs to be put in some perspective. First there was an accident in 1966, in which my mom was negligent in my TBI. Then there were years of slow learning as a result of the TBI. Also there was gas-lighting in which she blamed me for her own negligence, including calling me demeaning names for years. Then there was bad teenage behavior in 1981 as a result of teen angst, as a result of the gas-lighting. That is when I became a target–and yet it took me decades to understand that I was a target of a political scapegoating campaign. It was only in the last few years that I have realized that a conspiracy was formed in the 1980s and that was the decade I became a target. I never intended to become a target.
I think Dr.Cohen’s comment about force is best put into context. My take on it is that force simple…is, it exists and is used to maintain social cohesion. I interpreted his statement as simply an observation, a statement of fact. now…
I think the US is leaning more on mental health, inc. precisely because this society now requires more coercion and straight up force than in years past, largely due to social disintegration. Mass incarceration and the police state are (apparently) not quite enough to maintain the status quo, and so…
Mental Health, Inc. has now taken over the schools, the churches and other places of worship, the mass media, the courts, the family. Basically…the false religion of ‘mental health’ has now successfully infiltrated all important social institutions.
Not that I want to (or should) single out the US. Other, more ‘progressive’ nations make heavy use of mental health, inc. as well, a fact Dr.Cohen rightly pointed out in the interview. In fact, many of them are far more adept at using -state funded- psychiatry as a form of medicalized control, masquerading as “treatment,” “help,” etc. The mental health industry, of course, reflects the surrounding culture. One sees this in the efforts to rename and thereby ‘de-stigmatize’ the ‘psychotic disorders’ in some nations, while in the US one sees regular advertisements for long acting injections (depot shots) of various ‘atypical’ neuroleptics for “Schizophrenia.”
Szasz, of course, is correct in pointing out that abolishing psychiatry would lead to more freedom and far greater clarity of thought+communication (this is a so so paraphrase, btw). Perhaps one day, this shall come to pass.
I had the same thought as you on the comment about force, that perhaps it was “simply an observation, a statement of fact”. As everything else in the interview was spot on and Dr. Cohen helped people to withdraw from psychiatric drugs and was critical of the mad science, coercion and medical model.
Generally, Thomas Szasz campaigned for the abolition of forced psychiatry, and not, being a psychiatrist himself, the abolition of psychiatry. Coercive treatment is anathema to the whole concept of liberty. Right now you have rule of law and the mental health loophole. The mental health loophole constitutes a threat to the freedom of law abiding citizens. Close the loophole, and we’re back to rule of law.
This interview was surprisingly disappointing. It seems like Dr. Cohen is endorsing the system as it is. Am I missing something? Where is the outrage? The system is broken. The DSM labels are bogus and the treatments are torture. We need restorative justice–not the status quo scapegoating of juveniles and others who the people in power find to be inconvenient. Restore civil rights! Roll back fascism!
I have reached out repeatedly to Dr. Cohen, just as I have to Robert Whitaker, Peter Breggin, Jim Gottstein, Will Hall and others. No one will have a serious conversation with me. I am a scapegoat. There is no avenue for people who have been shunned; and this is wrong. People who have been shunned know that the society is broken; and they can help to fix it–ideas like restorative justice can work and must be expanded. Zero dialogue is NOT working.
FYI: I was run over in the driveway in 1966. My mom was negligent in that accident; but she went on to gas-light me throughout my childhood. She made me write in my fifth grade autobiography that I was to blame for the accident.
When I was about ten years old, she told me I was ambidextrous when I asked her why I threw right- handed but wrote left- handed. The truth was that I had been brain injured in the 1966 accident. She was covering up her own negligence in the accident by blaming me.
All of this background information gets buried when you are a political scapegoat.
She was purposely using a big word, ambidextrous, to confuse me. (By the way, I could never throw with my left arm or write with my right). The deception worked for years; and I even did write that the accident had been my own fault in my fifth grade autobiography. That was not good for my self-esteem; and deep down I think I knew that there was information that was being withheld.
Finally, decades later, I know that my mom was negligent in the accident. Finally I know that she was confusing me on purpose in order to cover up her own negligence.
This is classic psychiatric strategy: confuse the patient and make them think that all of their problems are their own fault. This, of course, is false.
The status quo torture as usual model is must be taken down. Stop home invasion and torture. Restore human rights. Restore civil rights. Give juveniles restorative justice.
I am being systematically isolated from all meaningful contacts/ conversations. My wife has been tricked into working nearly 100 hours per week. My children are tricked into believing all the misinformation from their “friends”.
The plan has been to make me be alone and suffer alone. This is torture. Stop torture. Open dialogue. Restore justice.
I don’t know how many people have been in my situation as an extreme scapegoat; but I would not wish this punishment on anyone. It is horrible and it is wrong. The conspirators should not be proud of themselves–they should be ashamed. If they are proud, then I don’t believe that they know that I was run over in the driveway in 1966 and gas-lighted about that accident.
People are not interested in the facts; and they will not open dialogue to discuss them. Politics and scapegoating have taken over. There is a willful ignorance that is intended to bury the condemned man without a trial.
Resist the police state. Tell the truth about families that scapegoat children that they have run over. Tell the truth about families who cover for negligent parents. Tell the truth about the long, historic alliance between negligent parents and psychiatry.
Let’s be honest about how to build community and how society isolates scapegoats on purpose.
There has to be some objective criticism about the scapegoating of people; because mistakes are made all the time, in my opinion.
Also, there must be room made for restorative justice. The way people interpret juvenile misbehavior is probably wrong most of the time, I would say. And yet, how is anyone going to know if the people in power don’t even talk to the juvenile about the misbehavior?
Although this is what appears to be happening, building community around the scapegoat is wrong, in my opinion. If anyone cares to do a little research, they will find that the scapegoat was a victim run over in the driveway, gas-lighted by his negligent parents, and conspired against by his high school peers. This is not something to be proud of–it is disgraceful scapegoating based on false pretenses.
Building community around a false narrative is not building a strong community. What is lacking is truth and reconciliation, also known as restorative justice. Slander and political narratives do not make a strong foundation for building community–quite the opposite.
Juvenile justice requires restorative justice. Political and psych labels distort the truth about families and the scapegoating of children.
FYI: Psychiatry endorses extreme punishment including home invasion and torture. Psychiatry endorses
the extreme police state.
Hey! People! Stop torturing TBI survivors!
Truth still matters.
Political scapegoating campaigns bury the truth under a false narrative.
Restorative justice is needed to bring back the truth. Reconciliation is needed to allow for healing.
My parents gas-lighted me by telling me it was my own fault for being run over in the driveway. That false information was very damaging for my self-esteem. The truth is that they were negligent in the accident and that they were protecting themselves by feeding me lies. The truth is that I suffered a TBI in the accident in my driveway in 1966.
I don’t think fascism can be so easily justified. I don’t think it is a necessary evil–it is just evil. I would really like to discuss the possibilities of restorative justice with Dr. Cohen and/or others. I don’t think it is a “cop out”; and I would argue that the system as it is, is not working (except for the drug companies, the private prisons, and the psychiatrists who insist on telling lies every day).
In the interview Dr. Cohen does something that seems contradictory. He seems to want to have his cake and eat it too. He rejects the bio medical model, and yet he still seems to be fine with the role of psychiatry to scapegoat people. OK, I don’t think he says “scapegoat” specifically, but I think it is implied. He does not seem to explore, or even consider, restorative justice. Why not?
He does talk about coercion and says he thinks it is necessary. I find this very disappointing; but I also think about Dr. Caplan’s article defining words. Does “coercion” always mean forced drugging? Perhaps it may mean forced prison only? Perhaps smart prisoners can pretend to take their drugs like the “doctors” pretend to “care” for them.
To me “coercion” always implies some kind of trickery, so that the victim is blindsided by a decision that is beyond his control. This is what is most frightening about “coercion” to me. Dr. Cohen does not define his terms; and that makes his comments somewhat vague and confusing.
Dr. Cohen describes himself as someone who has rescued many people from forced drugging in Canada. But now, he seems to be arguing for forced drugging. Isn’t that contradictory? He seems to see both sides of the argument; but he choses now, in middle age, to side with the powers that be.
Perhaps, decades ago, Dr. Cohen was more aware of the scapegoat’s unfair struggles. Perhaps he was also more aware then how political and arbitrary the decisions to torture people can be.
As I have mentioned before, I would really like to see the numbers of people in the U.S, Canada, and elsewhere where people are force drugged. It is scary as hell; and yet it is so difficult to know how many people are suffering in this inhumane way.
People should be outraged that this is happening; and yet it seems to operate so secretly, that most people are not even aware of this torture. Where is this information? The people who have it are not sharing it.
It seems that critics working in psychiatry cannot maintain a living if they do not eventually endorse “coercion”; and Dr. Cohen speaks about a right of passage for the shrinks to prove that they can be fascists. It sounds like a fraternity in the worst sense of the word, using their power to make disenfranchised people suffer.
Psychiatry has “the power to control people who bother us in our midst”. Wow, isn’t that a broad and open-ended category. Isn’t that leaving the door wide open for fascism? Who gets to decide who is bothering “us”.
How might this vague definition be abused? Countless ways, for sure.
Isn’t it conceivable that the people who are being incarcerated, drugged, abused, etc. have found their abusers to be “people who bother us in our midst”? Isn’t this all open to perception of people in power vs. people not in power? This seems like a 17th century political discussion.
With critics of psychiatry like this, psychiatry will not change. Dr. Cohen does not go far enough–and in fact he endorses coercion, so that is pretty lame criticism.
When there is no debate, of course people get frustrated. Meanwhile, there is home invasion and torture every night since January,2012. What to do? I know that I am not alone in being a political scapegoat. I know that other people are aware that forensic psychiatry is playing very loosely with politics and law. People know that scapegoats get shafted and negligent people walk away freely. People know that the system is rigged and that even TBI victims who get run over in the driveway can be gas-lighted and framed in order to protect those negligent parents.
I challenge my extended family to get out of the punishment / scapegoating business. I challenge them to embrace the healing of restorative justice. I would also call for them to embrace the movement for slavery reparations that is clearly needed for national healing for this divided country. I know that it is the right thing to do and it is necessary to begin to start anew for families living in the aftermath of slavery. This is still extremely painful for the nation to even talk about; but once the process begins, then healing can begin. I think there will be a bright future and that reparations are necessary and overdue.
The truth is that I have no contact with my extended family. I would like to re-establish contact with them.
I know that my stupid behavior in 1981 caused a lot of pain, and I am sorry for causing that pain. I think restorative justice would help to heal that pain. I think there is a lot of confusion that is only amplified by not talking or holding any dialogue. I am trying to do the right thing. I am trying to turn a bad situation into a better one. Torturing my body and my mind is not the right thing to do. I know that the whole
family needs healing and I want to be a part that healing.
I have been reading the Don Weitz book, and I must say that he is a hero to marginalized people everywhere. He speaks truth to power; and power is what psychiatry is all about. Don’t pretend there is an “illness.” This is about how we perceive people who have been down and out; and how we mistreat them over and over in order push them aside and forget them. Where is our humanity? Where is our restorative justice? Where is our forgiveness and understanding? They are hard to find, except in Don’s writing.
Marginalized people matter. Don’t believe the slander. Know that individuals become scapegoats for a reason.
One common reason is to protect negligent people, including parents and friends of parents.
The strategy to protect and cover up for negligent people is victim blaming by changing the subject, aka bait and switch.
Slander, conspiracy, gas-lighting are all used in order to achieve their goal.
To borrow words from the debate last night, in order to describe what is happening every night, it is “state sponsored crime” for someone to invade my home and torture me. This has been going on every night since January, 2012.
“Cruel and unusual punishment” seems like an understatement to describe this. Draconian is a little better.
It does seem like something from the 17th century. It certainly feels like vindictive scapegoating to say the least.
I am outraged by the criminal justice system’s behavior. Obviously there are a lot of people who are willing to join a mob in order to punish someone. However, this is mob behavior; and there must be consideration for civil rights and restorative justice.
Obviously, a lot of people have suffered by the legal actions of our system. I know I am not alone in feeling
stunned at the cruelty of our system.
Removed for moderation.
Recognize that psychiatry protects negligent people and often scapegoats the victims of those same protected, negligent people.
I appreciate MIA. However, I think there are more than a few inconsistencies. I am talking about picking and choosing which lies to confront and which to leave alone. Yes, MIA is pretty good at attacking the “medical model”; and telling most of the truth behind the phony labels.
However, there doesn’t seem to be enough examination about why families scapegoat their children. Even MIA is prone to joining bandwagons that are promoting false narratives.
MIA would be doing a better service if it explained more about the conflict between civil rights (especially for juvenile bad behavior) and community scapegoating/ conspiracies. There is a larger perspective of this political situation that needs discussion. It is not just about phony “diagnoses” and torturous “treatments.”
It is about political narratives that are imposed on people who do not deserve it. It is about assumptions that are not true. And, finally, it is about shutting down people’s voices. It is about fascism.
Let’s talk about alternatives to fascism.
Euthanasia is a misnomer for what psychiatry does to people; because I seriously do not believe that death by drugging is painless. It is torture, in my opinion. Also, there does seem to be a targeting of young people; so I might call it Youth-anasia.
Stop scapegoating bad juvenile behavior. How about trying to understand why the young person did it in the first place? Are the people in power too scared to find out that the parents own behavior (or negligence) might have something to do with it?
When communities go to great lengths to play charades in order to isolate and ostracize their scapegoat, then democracy is in trouble. How about restorative justice? How about open dialogue? These are progressive ideas that can actually bring about resolution and healing.
How about recognizing that their was harm done to a person who was run over in the driveway in 1966? How about admitting that parental gas-lighting is damaging to a child?
How about admitting that lying to a child about a brain-injury is damaging as well? (or that never even discussing a brain injury that occurred is damaging to that child?).
Stop home invasion. Stop torture. Open dialogue. Restore justice.
Allow TBI survivors to have a voice in restorative justice.
Please acknowledge that there are a lot of people who have phony DSM labels but real Traumatic Brain Injuries.
Please acknowledge that psychiatry is based on slander in order to punish people or to get them out of the way.
Stop home invasion. Stop torture. Stop slander.
Slander is not justice.
Slander is a duck and cover scapegoating strategy.
Beware of the people leading the charges of slander. They probably have something to hide.
Slander is a ultimately a defensive legal strategy. It is being used to distract from the driveway accident in 1966, in which Treon Christine was negligent.
Restorative justice requires that two parties sit down together in search of understanding. This has to happen.
Both sides have made mistakes. Both sides need to reach out and compromise, because restorative justice is in the interest of both parties.
Please acknowledge that family and community rejects are very often victims of the family and community.
The reason that rejects become rejects is that the family and community refuses to take responsibility for them. Until that begins to happen, there cannot be restorative justice.
Draconian punishment is NOT what I mean for taking responsibility. It is the opposite of taking responsibility
for juveniles who act out.
Home invasion and torture is not taking responsibility for juvenile misbehavior. It is inhumane, just as the DSM and “treatment” is inhumane.
What I am arguing for is open dialogue and restorative justice.
I believe that there is such thing as out of control punishment. That is what many people are living with right now, including me.
When the legal system’s punishment system is out of control, then what? When the system is crazy, then what? People have to realize how draconian and self-defeating the system is; and the system has to be reformed.
When authority figures including police, doctors, lawyers, etc. lie over and over to TBI survivors, then the system is broken. When they only want to use you for political purposes, then the system is broken.
When it becomes obvious that your occupation has become “political scapegoat”, then the system is broken.
When you know that you can still contribute to society, but the only response you get is ridicule and charades; then the system is broken.
It is bad enough that the Thought Police do exist. The worst part of it is that they make false assumptions.
Once they have wrongly decided that you have made an illegal thought, then they can make your life a living hell. Furthermore, they can and do punish you by going after your spouse and children in order to alienate you even more.
This is un-American and a violation of civil rights (and that is an understatement).
Please acknowledge that there are probably thousands of people with TBIs that are being scapegoated by psychiatry. Recognize that TBIs are real traumatic injuries–unlike the DSM book of insults. Recognize that many TBI survivors are gas-lighted by the family in order to maintain their standing (power) in the community.
Recognize that family often turns to psychiatry to formally disown their children in order to complete the power play of scapegoating. Psychiatry is only too willing to conspire with negligent families, because there is money to be made and power to be gained.
Recognize that both parties (the family and the complicit psych system) may embrace a false narrative in order to gain public support for their Public relations/oppression campaign against the scapegoat.
The scapegoat never is given a fair chance to refute that false narrative.
Part of the oppression campaign includes nightly home invasion and torture. This has been happening since January, 2012.
The physical torture and home invasion began in 2012; but the overall political conspiracy has been organizing since 1981 (for 38 years).
I continue to be violently attacked in my home every night. I know that this is not obvious to anyone but myself–and that is part of the torture.
Not a Happy new year. Why not? Because the home invasion and torture continue. Because the PR campaign against scapegoats is intensifying. Because psychiatry is as powerful as ever as a propaganda tool.
I am still fighting for restorative justice. I am still resisting the torture and the conspiracy against me. I am still finding allies in the Hong Kong struggle for justice and freedom against state sponsored police brutality
Thanks for the article Peter.
I am not pleased that patients should have to prove “withdrawal effect”.
I guess then, if I present to someone with a headache, other aches, those complaints then cannot be accepted on faith.
Then there is no point in having made Tylenol to be sold over the counter. Someone actually made Tylenol by not PROVING headaches, but on faith. How do you prove most pain?
Yes we need to hold the fabrics together. But psychiatry is not successful, because the fabric is being designed by the strongest, not the wisest. Now we have become aware of our failings and it remains a struggle to decide who indeed is equipped to reinvent the fabric.
But I can tell you, it will become a very real problem. The pawns are not happy.
I am still beyond belief that this is happening. I thought that open dialogue was what the writers on MIA specialized in. I need restorative justice. I need open communication. Psychiatry is still on the wrong side of history because it is covering up my mom’s negligent behavior. I was brain-injured in 1966; and she was negligent. She covered that up; and then she actually had the nerve to blame the accident on me. This is crucial information that is being covered up in order to put forward a false narrative about me–it is a political scapegoating narrative that is simply not true.
Psychiatry specialized in demonizing people who have become scapegoats. Life is complicated; but psychiatry over-simplifies it and pretends that everything is black and white. It is not–there is a lot more gray than psychiatry recognizes.
That is why restorative justice is necessary. There has to be dialogue that will bridge the generation gaps. There must be dialogue to get us out of the scapegoating business. There must be dialogue to remind us that we began as united families–and it is institutional psychiatry that is tearing us apart.
Fascism cannot prevail. Torture cannot prevail. The Therapeutic state cannot prevail.
Take down fascism. Take down torture. Take down the Therapeutic state.
Replace fascism with democracy.
Replace torture with restorative justice.
Replace the Therapeutic state with open dialogue.
I think that David Cohen is wrong and that people know that there is something deeply disturbing and wrong about the Therapeutic state. I think that the free pass accepting coercion will be taken back when enough people realize this; and that time should be arriving shortly.
I think Dr. Cohen is wrong that people approve of the Therapeutic state. Instead, I believe that they fear it–for good reason; and they don’t want to become a victim of it. So naturally, they would rather the victim be somebody else–not them. It is more of a survival instinct than any kind of endorsement.
Again, I think people know the Therapeutic state is undemocratic and probably fascist. That grates against the principals of the country–including fair trials and protection from cruel and unusual punishment. I also believe that most people have a lingering suspicion that psychiatry is corrupt; but it is so much a part of our culture now that they don’t know how to avoid it.
Removed at request of poster.
Here is what we have as far as juvenile justice in America (in most cases):
No restorative justice.
No healing for nuisance crimes.
We can do so much better; and most people know that the system, as it is, is overly vindictive and punitive.
Take out for profit punishment, including for-profit prisons and for-profit drugging. Take out the vindictiveness; and we move much closer to restoring justice and democracy. Scapegoating people for
profit is, unfortunately, the norm.
Psychiatry will gladly slander, drug, and torture social/ political pariahs. That is their bread and butter.
However, this is un-American–in fact it is fascist and the police state has to be rolled back because our
country is better than that.
Yes, I do believe restorative justice can take the place of slander, drugging, and torture as punishment. Yes, I do believe that we all deserve and want a better system that is based on democratic values. Yes, I do think that people know that juveniles and others are being scapegoated by an oppressive police state.