In Defense of Anger


As a culture, we have not made up our minds about anger and it’s pretty well destroying us. Men are permitted to be angry — mostly only if they’re white, even to the point of taking guns into every public place imaginable and murdering innocent people there; women are harshly criticized and dismissed as unstable for legitimate displays of anger that often amount to far less than what men display; children who get too angry are diagnosed with a personality disorder if they’re female-presenting and Oppositional Defiant Disorder if they’re male-presenting. “Where is the outrage?” accompanies more and more posts on social media that include articles on the latest atrocity, human rights violation or environmental disaster. Yet anger is not welcome in most interpersonal relationships; many people as children experienced traumatizing expressions of anger from their caregivers and are triggered into parasympathetic-driven responses when exposed to even healthy anger.

But the therapy industry has made it astoundingly difficult to know what healthy anger looks like. When a therapy client expresses anger, the typical response from most therapists I’ve come across or heard about isn’t to validate it. It’s to attempt to get the client to go “underneath” the anger to find what’s “really” going on. Anger is a secondary emotion is somehow in my head — I don’t know when I first heard it, but it’s been there as long as the phone number to the house I grew up in. Because I’m female, I was told from a very young age that anger is not an appropriate feeling to have (to say nothing of expressing it). So the anger I felt at being bullied at school, at friends for breaking their promises, at my family for making fun of me for having feelings, at my sister for judging me as less than her and not worthy of relationship with her as soon as she was old enough to understand the word judgment, was always just one step ahead of the shame I felt for feeling angry.

There also isn’t a time “before” any of the memories I have of me trying to dig through the anger to some other primary — in other words, acceptable-to-society — emotion. I clawed myself apart trying to “heal” from all this anger, which compounded with every failure to dispel the anger until I was basically a human-shaped sack of rage. Rage is, of course, even more horrible than anger if a woman feels it. Women are to be nurturing and accommodating and safe and eager to perform 100% of the emotional labor men need done. The women who are unwilling or unable to do those things are either pushed to be tomboys or are shoved out of human community beyond shallow transactions and tolerance. And the therapy industry has aided and abetted the rejection of anger our society is hell-bent on.

There are only so many times you can ask someone who says they’re angry what’s “really” going on before they feel invalidated. Worse, though, constantly questioning what’s “below” the anger is a very effective way of gaslighting someone and getting them to mistrust themselves and their ability to identify their feelings accurately. If this is what goes on in therapy, it’s no wonder we’re so confused about anger in public. What if there is nothing below the anger? What if it’s, as they say, turtles all the way down?

What would it mean for those who have committed true wrongs against other people for their anger not to be a “surface” thing or a mask for some other emotion, but the real, actual emotion that the wronged person feels? I’ve written before about how our culture does everything it can to reduce blame and put comfort and protection where there should be guilt and remorse. Delegitimizing anger is yet one more way to keep the current structures of power and oppression in place.

Tone policing is yet another, and it has become a common practice in personal relationships, on social media and in public discourse. Rape survivors, victims of violence and people struggling to get out from under oppression shout and yell because they are silenced, ignored and blamed. Those in power turn around and tell them to lower their voices so they can be heard better. “Please speak nicely and politely about how you were viciously violated and discarded or else we won’t be able to hear you and then nothing will be done.” The degree to which you are able to recount your story of injury calmly, especially if you are female or a person of color, is directly proportional to how much you will be believed.

Anger is power in men (a positive thing if the man is white, a negative thing if the man is not), irrational in women, disobedience in children, a sign of danger in people of color, is considered “entitled” in poor people and a “weak moment” in someone with a disability. It is, except in white men, something most codes of conduct and power structures are set up to try to eliminate. Even many mental health advocates are now urging people to “stop participating in the outrage machine,” as if apathy in the face of climate chaos, disintegrating safety nets, sky-rocketing costs of living while wages stay stagnant and jobs become more and more impossible for the average person to get, desiccated relational landscapes and horrific acts being continually committed by people in power is good self care. It is, of course, not good to burn out your adrenals or do destructive things to yourself or others. Venting is now thought to make matters worse instead of better as it may retrigger the original emotions and further entrench you in physically unsustainable feelings. But if therapy wants to do good not harm, maybe it should work on methods of helping people feel angry at things it makes good sense to be angry about and finding the most healing ways of metabolizing or expressing that anger. Healing is very different than appropriate.

“Appropriate” behavior is what you do for other people; manners are a useful tool as long as you have to function in society and want some form of positive or at least neutral human contact, since consumerism in America has gone so far as to encourage everyone to only have positive, non “toxic” people in their lives — and never mentions what happens to those who are, accurately or not, labeled “toxic” (a topic for another post). “Healing” is about the individual and what the individual identifies they need in relation to their injury. How we define anger and who we let feel it in society is about managing behaviors, not about authenticity, healing or justice. The extent to which therapists participate in the current structures we have around anger and gender, race, ability and class is the extent to which they perpetuate harm on those they claim they are helping. This is one of the most damaging Orwellian conflations out there because the harm being done in the name of helping is less obvious, harder to catch.

I went to therapy for a number of years thinking that the invalidation, frustration, inability to define goals and lack of progress was all part of the process. Maybe I’m feeling invalidated because my feelings are actually wrong. Maybe I’m frustrated because I’m impatient or I want too much, I want what’s not possible, I’m greedy, my desires are out of my league. “These things take time,” I would remind myself, as my therapist would consistently remind me whenever I brought up this frustration of life moving forward without me despite my desire to figure out the life I want and build it. Maybe my inability to define clear goals isn’t because I have no idea who I am since I’ve felt I’ve had to pretend to be anything other than what I am in order to be loved for so long that pretending is the default; maybe it’s because we just haven’t gotten there in the process yet. Maybe I’m not really not making progress; maybe that’s just my perception, which is obviously damaged or I wouldn’t need to be in therapy, and my therapist who is telling me that I am making progress is right.

The one thing therapy has helped me with over the years is internalizing the ability to invalidate. In all my years of therapy, I didn’t actually learn the tools of self love, self soothing or authenticity. I continued to feel broken, like my anger was inappropriate and unreasonable and I was being too hard on people or not giving the benefit of the doubt when I expected them to mean what they said. I continued to feel unrealistic for wanting to see progress, as if trying for years and wondering why things weren’t working was like demanding change overnight. But then I remembered that I had been unreasonable in the past; I had expected too much of myself and others and I was probably just doing that again. Maybe I truly did have an anger problem I needed to manage. Maybe I wasn’t being treated with the love and respect I wanted and believe all humans are worthy of because I wasn’t behaving in a way that earned said love and respect.

It used to be upsetting that my therapist would talk about what we were going to do or what we needed to do, but most sessions were spent on me relaying “updates” or explaining what I had done on my own. My therapist would say that I needed therapy and I would agree, but then, in session, he wouldn’t know what to do and would spend several expensive, precious minutes thinking and then still not coming up with suggestions. It used to really upset me that I was having to pay quite a lot when I didn’t feel I was being helped. But then my therapist was able to show me how badly I was making him feel when, playing the role of me in a role-play, he said what I’d apparently actually said to him when I was trying to express my frustration at using my limited resources in a way I didn’t feel was helping me, “You’re a bad therapist. You don’t deserve your money.” Okay, maybe I was being harsh. Maybe it just hadn’t been enough time yet. Maybe waiting — to feel better, to get clarity, to move forward with my life — was a thing I needed to learn how to do for whatever reason.

It used to be pretty upsetting that so many people consistency cancel plans the day of (or simply ghost and not bother to even say they’re not coming) and that I could count so much more on people cancelling plans than actually being there for me that I began to double book myself constantly and only once in the years since I started doing that was there a conflict. The other thing I started doing, though, was telling myself that my expectations of people were too high. Instead of affirming the exhaustion of attempting to build connection and relationships and the mini traumas that I experienced regularly from people not taking their word or time with me seriously, I simply told myself that it was unreasonable to expect people to mean with they say. People are busy, I would try to comfort myself, pushing down the hurt and loneliness that comes with never being anyone’s priority ever. It used to be upsetting that people wouldn’t follow up when they knew you were having a hard time. People are busy, I would tell myself, and ignore once again the injury that comes with not being chosen, planned for or sought out.

Of course, I’ve experienced much more deeply wounding things than this — several just in the last six months alone — but I don’t want to communicate that anger should only be about huge things like betrayal or death or divorce. Anger is valid when there is legitimate hurt, “big” or “small,” and it’s legitimately hurtful to be willing to show up for people and have those people not show up for you for no other reason than “busyness,” as if people are victims to their own schedules and choices, if you get a reason at all. Anger is valid when your friends are not there for you, when they ignore you, when you have to do all the initiating and pursuing just to keep the friendship going. Anger is valid when you are hurt. Period.

Anger, not excusing away and invalidating my feelings, was also valid in all those situations above with my therapist. There are modes of dealing with trauma that do not leave the person suffering in agony for over three years. Anger is valid when your individual therapist wants to remain neutral in a relationship breakup you’re experiencing because he “doesn’t know the other person’s side.”

Anger is valid when you do not feel safe. There does not need to be an emotion “beneath” it.

Anger is valid when you do not feel loved by people who claim to love you but show no action to back their words. It’s valid as a primary emotion. It’s also a valid response to the customary “just get new friends” invalidation our society likes to tell people who experience the end of friendships, as if making friends as an adult is super easy or something.

Anger is valid when you are gaslighted, scapegoated or made out to be the monster. Hurt and sadness can be present, too, but that doesn’t make them more real or more primary than anger.

Anger is valid when you are abandoned by those who have given lip service to caring about you.

Anger is valid when you are harmed by people who get paid to help you.

I’m not defending anger just because I like it or because I’m an angry person. It’s not just my opinion that anger is not only okay but actually good — it’s science. There have been studies done on children raised by angry parents and children raised by passive (some people like to call it “permissive”) parents. While both anger and passivity caused damage, the children who struggled under passive parents fared worse than those who dealt with angry parents. Children who had passive parents were less resilient, struggled to get good grades (not that I’m validating the education system as an accurate measure of intelligence) and had a harder time accomplishing the things they said they wanted to accomplish. People who had passive parents had trouble regulating emotions and struggled with self-motivation much more than those who grew up with angry parents. For the most part, though, our culture treats anger like public enemy number one and the therapy industry dismisses it as something in the way of the “real” feeling.

But actually, it’s not anger that’s so damaging, it’s passivity, which is a polite word for neglect. Of course there are scary expressions of anger. Of course those who have experienced destructive anger in their lives from partners, parents, caregivers, bosses, friends, etc., have every right to be uncomfortable around it. But our fixation on validating those who are afraid of anger, the way therapists manage and treat “anger issues” and how we allocate anger allowances, is deeply broken. Anger is not the enemy; the things, systems and attitudes that blame the angry person and otherwise cause harm are.


Mad in America hosts blogs by a diverse group of writers. These posts are designed to serve as a public forum for a discussion—broadly speaking—of psychiatry and its treatments. The opinions expressed are the writers’ own.


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  1. Nice article and to quote the guy in the movie Network “I’m as mad as Hell and I’m not going to take it anymore” (note white guy or he wouldnt be allowed to express this outburst of emotion). However…..

    You touch on an issue I find interesting Megan, the link between anger and violence. Not just those overt acts of violence portrayed in the media and ‘spun’ for political and economic purposes, but the ‘silent violence’ done by those who repress the outward display of their anger. An example.

    A therapist who dislikes their clients anti psychiatry views but keeps their anger about this under wraps. By exploiting the trust of their client and having them ‘confess’ their sins, they can now systematically destroy their clients life, and have them pay for the destruction of their marriage, career, and quite possible have large amounts of drugs administered against their will possibly leading to suicide. This type of violence disguised as therapy is not, I believe, uncommon particularly in a system regularly described as being “in crisis”. Its the fact that it IS in crisis that enables this type of conduct to occur. Of course those who engage in such conduct can quite often be of the delusional belief that they are not being watched 🙂 and often times find themselves in some compromised positions.

    How do you feel about this type of ‘silent violence’ that occurs as a result of repressed anger?

    Thanks for getting me thinking about these issues.

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    • “Client’s antipsychiatry?” I suggest a little duplicity involved so long as your “client” is still buying “therapy”, and “therapy” from a person afflicted with “professional” therapist disorder who is selling it. Boycott therapy, and you also boycott hypocrisy.

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    • “By exploiting the trust of their client and having them ‘confess’ their sins, they can now systematically destroy their clients life, and have them pay for the destruction of their marriage, career, and quite possible have large amounts of drugs administered against their will possibly leading to suicide. This type of violence disguised as therapy is not, I believe, uncommon….” No it’s not uncommon, you’re correct, Boans. That, along with a bunch of lies, is exactly how my therapist attempted to destroy my life.

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  2. The people I allow myself to get angry with is my parents and siblings. I would get angry with my wife. I don’t actually speak to parents or brothers so I don’t get angry.

    I may be angry at people on street although I pray and I know what I believe. I get angry at co-workers, but I ignore it. Not the place to do that at least with me. I did though kind of at state govnt level because due to perks and security I think they take it overboard.

    It may seem I’m not able to express and it’s kind of true but I’ve been this way since I was fifteen. That way is lonely to point of isolation and not having people to talk with. It’s had huge blessings but I’m definitely hurt by it. I’m not sad though so I’m grateful.

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    • There was a time in my recovery where I put a sign on the wall that read “Anger does not equal violence.” I appeal to others to stick such reminders up for their own benefit. Anger is a tool. It can be used to understand and grow or it can be used to harm. That is a choice.

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  3. “Anger is valid when you are” betrayed “by those who have given lip service to caring about you.” Like one’s PCP, who promised to “first and foremost do no harm,” but then puts you on a toxic cocktail of mind altering drugs, albeit under the guise of “safe … meds?” And a Christian religion, that took millions in cash and profits from financial management services rendered to them by your family, who one eventually learns is no longer even a Holy Bible believing Christian religion, but instead a DSM “bible” believing, child rape covering up and profiteering, religion?

    “Anger is valid when you are harmed by people who get paid to help you.” I agree, and an ethical pastor of a different religion did confess the child abuse covering up crimes committed against my family, by my former doctors and religious leaders, are “the dirty little secret of the two original educated professions.”

    And, indeed, the number one actual societal function of both the psychological and psychiatric industries, for over a century, has been covering up child abuse and rape.

    How do we put an end to “the dirty little secret of the two original educated professions?” And their, by design, child abuse and rape covering up, scientifically ‘invalid,’ and “bullshit” DSM belief system?

    “Anger is not the enemy; the things, systems and attitudes that blame the angry person and otherwise cause harm are.” I agree, all should be angry with our child abusing, child abuse and rape covering up, pedophile protecting, DSM “bible” believing “two original educated professions.” Their systems are satanic, and those satanic pedophilia empowerment systems are destroying our world.

    I get my anger out by painting about their crimes, in other words, by painting the truth. Oh, now my artwork is “too truthful.” So the ELCA sicked another psychologist onto me to try to deceptively steal all my artwork and family’s money, under the guise of a BS “art manager” contract. No, not signing that thievery contract. But the delusions of grandeur, crimes, and attempted crimes of the psychologists, psychiatrists, and their child rape covering up religions, know no bounds.

    The “two original educated professions” need to repent, and utilize their insurance for what it is intended, instead. And they need to change their satanic DSM “bible” believing, Pharmakia worshipping, fraud based monetary system worshipping, child abuse and rape covering up, and child abusing ways. As Chris Hedges said:

    “We now live in a nation where doctors destroy health, lawyers destroy justice, universities destroy knowledge, governments destroy freedom, the press destroys information, religion destroys morals, and our banks destroy the economy.”

    The systems are satanic. We should all be angry at those working to maintain the current satanic, globalist systems, rather than working to dismantle these satanic systems. Oh, but women don’t have brains in our heads, thus we aren’t allowed to be angry about the abuse of our beloved child, the lack of justice, or the satanic systems that are destroying our world. Huh? Wrong, we should all be angry at the systemic degradation, destruction, and looting of our country.

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  4. Thank you Megan for this excellent and timely blog. Considering the amount of anger that permeates our culture – and rightfully so – it is always a good time to remind that anger is healthy and that we choose how to respond to it. Are there times when screaming at the top of our lungs that everything is not bloody well alright and shit needs to change? Absolutely! Thanks for this lovely and pointed push back against the pathologization of legitimate outrage.

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  5. Great article. I agree. A few years back I talked to a “trauma” therapist who told me his goal was to “soften” my anger. I asked myself why. Did my anger make him uncomfortable? I stopped communicating with him after he said that.

    More recently I realized that I am not the least bit uncomfortable with my own anger. I’m happy to have it there to help motivate me. Outrage is likely the most useful emotion to get things done in society. Certainly, passivity, medicated anger, or anger limited to the therapist’s office isn’t going to be very effective at making the changes we demand.

    If it’s the goal of therapy to silence us then I personally choose to stay as far away from the couch as I can.

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  6. The mindset is toward “getting” the social and emotional things needed in life, if you have a problem, you should learn how to “get” what you need. It makes for a competitive, unhealthy society. When some get, some naturally give. If you wanted a healthy society, the mindset would be toward giving. Where there is lots of giving, there is lots of receiving, out of the abundance. Why is this so hard to figure out if there are so many smart people in the world?

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  7. I agree with the criticism of the “anger is a secondary emotion” claim. I agree that anger is as valid as any other emotion. However, I also think that for any emotion, it can help to get in touch with the wants and needs that are behind it, and it can also help to review the evidence for whether it is really justified, etc.

    I like Aristotle’s saying on this: “Anybody can become angry – that is easy, but to be angry with the right person and to the right degree and at the right time and for the right purpose, and in the right way – that is not within everybody’s power and is not easy.”

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      • Hi Oldhead, like you do I imagine, I find the way that word “appropriate” is used is mostly very obnoxious, where someone is claiming the right to tell someone else what they should be doing and what is OK or not!

        What I was referring to, and what Aristotle was referring to I think, is more about what works to accomplish goals. As an example, let’s say I love someone, but they do something to offend me. If I just tell myself “anger is good, let them see my anger!” I may show anger in a way that makes my partner feel unloved and even decide to break up. Which was not what I wanted! But anger expressed more skillfully and artfully may leave my partner still feeling loved, but also understanding what the offense was and how it upset me. Does that make sense?

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          • People need to be able to get politically engaged, so that they can direct their anger to where it will do some good.

            It is because people do often not have these channels that they are at risk of ending up in the psychotherapist’s office where they will be further abused.

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          • Expressing anger to a psychotherapist is very risky. You could easily end up handcuffed to a table in a police interrogation cell.

            Most of the people I have encountered who express anger to their therapists are actually engaging in impotence building exercises. It becomes understood in their sphere that their anger means nothing. And this is the main goal of therapy, total neutering.

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  8. I really don’t think this is gender specific. I am a male and I have experienced the same thing. Therapists have invalidated my anger. And I don’t think it’s ok for “white men” to shoot up public spaces. I truly find that women have embraced the false notion that their anger is unacceptable and that they are not “allowed” to display it. I am not saying you haven’t experienced this or that your therapist hasn’t invalidate your anger but I think you are perpetuating a myth that what you are talking about it gender specific. Anyway, I enjoyed reading your article

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  9. Megan,

    Thank you so much for your piece here. I think the defense of anger is so long overdue. I’m 64 and all my life I have been told to dial down my anger. I was told this from the time I was three years old and possibly earlier. I was an abandoned newborn foundling who was fostered a week later and legally adopted by my foster parents. My birth abandonment was my first major trauma in life and many others followed. I had good reason to be angry but it took me many years to remember and to recognize why. I didn’t grow up knowing I was abandoned at birth by my birth mother or that I was a foundling. I knew I was adopted but that was all. I had a white hot anger and an acute sense of injustice from the time I can remember and no one in my adoptive family understood why. Those were not the days of any awareness about birth or childhood traumas.

    I intuitively knew I had experienced a huge trauma and injustice from my birth mother abandoning me. This actually sharpened my awareness of every following trauma and injustice so I felt anger very often. Throughout my life I was punished for noticing and expressing my anger, all the way through adulthood and even now into my sixties. If it weren’t for learning about second wave feminist writings in 1980 and onward I think I would’ve always been concerned about and ashamed of my anger. Instead, the feminist writers gave me a language to explore my anger and to learn that it was always connected with some injustice done to me or others. These feminist authors taught me that I can define myself, my emotions, and my experiences as a woman, apart from the male gaze or male interpretation. These feminists were incredibly lifesaving!

    So thank you for continuing this conversation concerning anger and reminding readers that it is a natural human emotion and it is not secondary. It arises in relation to wrongdoing committed by other human beings.

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  10. Thanks for this forthright blog Megan. I agree with much of what you state. Anger can be a useful and protective emotion and a tool to motivate you to stand up for yourself if you have been harmed. I don’t believe anyone should have to suppress or deny their anger as long as it is not expressed in a destructive or dangerous manner.

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  11. We all face identity and life challenges. But we learn and grow faster when we can assert ourselves and join with comrades in worthy struggle. Live and Let Live is a denial system, “I won’t hurt you, so please don’t hurt me”, when in fact people have been hurting you your entire life.

    With each of us, ANGER MUST BE THE COMPASS. Maybe we can’t instantly act on anger, but we can use anger in developing our strategy.

    People learn and grow faster when they are finding comrades and engaging in principled conflict, than they do in the therapist’s office.

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  12. It is mostly psychotherapy, recovery, and salvation seeking which stigmatize anger. They do not admit this, of course not. But they don’t take it as real and legitimate.

    They want you to vent histrionically, they want you to give up your power.

    People who wield power effectively do not vent histrionically. No, they plan, they strategize, they find comrades. And when they do say something, people take notice, because they know that something will happen.

    But when someone takes to psychotherapy, recovery, or salvation seeking, this potential power is lost.

    CA Gov. Gavin Newsom, Attorney General Xavier Becerra announce legal action on immigration

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  13. Love this. Thank you

    Poet and philosopher David Whyte on anger, forgiveness, and what maturity really means
    ANGER is the deepest form of compassion, for another, for the world, for the self, for a life, for the body, for a family and for all our ideals, all vulnerable and all, possibly about to be hurt. Stripped of physical imprisonment and violent reaction, anger is the purest form of care, the internal living flame of anger always illuminates what we belong to, what we wish to protect and what we are willing to hazard ourselves for.

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  14. I loved this article on anger. It reminded me of when I went to an emergency department and I saw a sign that they would not tolerate Anger. Anger was a crime and I could be charged with a felony conviction because the staff had the right to feel safe. I am not sure when anger became a crime in this country.

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    • Yes, Note the staff had a right to feel safe, but not the patients. In fact we are at the point in our system here that staff are being provided with stab vests and more security guards than the US President. I also note that this is not because they are this important but that their attitude to anyone who disagrees with them is that they should be beaten senseless and chemically restrained. No means yes.
      Anger is a precrime. As stated by Sun Tzu all those years ago “the angry man can again be happy, but a city destroyed can not be rebuilt and the dead can not be brought back to life”. Some cultures encourage the expression of anger before it spills over into actual violence, others want it bottled up till it explodes in rage. Dunno which works best to be honest. Profits in drugging them both though.

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