I would like to comment back in the days before science most mental illnesses were in fact physical illnesses such as syphilis. Back in the days before science, they had no blood tests and no penicillin. That era and today can not ever be compared from because there was no SCIENCE at that time. People who went to hospital/asylums at the time and who recovered were known as addicts. Once free to resume their addiction many went back to their addiction. This is not medicine but morals. Locking people up forced them to be moral or abstain from their addiction. The author is also confused as to what a hospital is and what a prison is. If you can not leave the room you are in, that is a prison, not a hospital. Those in authority do call it a hospital as there is no one to oppose the statement. “Why were these hospitals successful?” Who reports the success versus failure? The lobotomy was judged a success by those that gave the operation. and the new technique to control the “ill”, given a Nobel prize. Locking people up does control them and does stop them from abusing drugs and alcohol and such things. You can call it medicine? Who is paying for the medicinal treatment of steel and concrete walls?