Rosalee, thank you for your kind words! I plan on blogging again soon. Steve, I think when the word “symptom” is used in the mental health system where the biomedical model reigns, it is typically used in a literal medical sense, not a general, metaphorical, non-medical sense. People in the system are told by professionals (particularly psychiatrists) their psychological experiences are “symptoms” of “mental illness.” I think the word “symptom” is powerful, insidious, and absolutely essential to the telling of the “mental illness” story. Psychiatry has successfully sold to society and its “patients” that psychological struggles are manifestations of real illnesses, caused by biogenetic abnormalities, which are no different to other medical illnesses. The word “symptom” is essential to this way of thinking. In fact, the entire “mental illness” story is embedded into this word. We think in words. When the word “symptom” is applied to psychological experiences, it conveys the message that such experiences are pathological and deviant manifestations of a real illness from which the person suffers. “Symptoms” are inherently bad and need to be “treated” and alleviated. A person who has “symptoms” is fundamentally different from normal, healthy people who are not ill. That person’s psychological struggles are abnormal expressions of a medical illness presumably rooted in abnormal biology, whereas the psychological experiences of normal, healthy people are reactions to their environment and are just part of life. I think all of this meaning is built into the word “symptom.” And MH professionals are taught to think using the word “symptom” early and often, so much so that it strikes them as bizarre to question the use of this word. Even people like the behavioral geneticist described in this article, who acknowledge that the concept of mental disorders is invalid, can’t help viewing psychological struggles as pathological. Indeed, a commonly used term for the study of psychological problems is “psychopathology.” Indoctrination into thinking in terms of “symptoms” occurs in college where students take “abnormal psychology.” All commonly-used abnormal psychology textbooks follow the DSM in lockstep and treat DSM diagnoses as scientific fact. Students are not taught to think critically about diagnoses or the biomedical model and are instead encouraged to think about psychological issues in terms of symptoms and disorders/illnesses. They are tested on their ability to recognize and memorise DSM symptoms and disorders. The graduate training of MH professionals emphasizes this narrative even more. The more highly educated MH professionals are – as in PhD clinical psychologists and psychiatrists – the more their education emphasizes DSM-based thinking about psychological experience. In my experience, very few MH professionals are capable of thinking about psychological experience without thinking in terms of “symptoms” and disorders/illnesses. They literally can’t wrap their head around the idea that psychological struggles might not be “symptoms.” They have no knowledge, training, or philosophical/theoretical framework for an alternative perspective. They have no alternative vocabulary. If psychological struggles are not “symptoms,” what are they? To answer that question, a MH professional has to have a clear philosophy of what it means to be a human being living in a challenging world, and theoretical knowledge of the causes of and maintaining factors of psychological struggles that is independent from the DSM-based biomedical model. The only MH professionals I know who can do this got there by educating themselves.